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1. The first matter on which a person is judged is Limud ha'Torah.
2. A judge who judges truthfully brings the Shechinah to Klal Yisrael.
3. A judge who awards money to the wrong party in a case is punished severely.
4. A judge must have clarity in order to issue a ruling.
5. When many judges rule on a Din together, they are all equally culpable if they issue an erroneous verdict.
6. It is a severe offense to appoint a judge who is unworthy.
7. A judge may not hear one litigant's side of a dispute unless the other litigant is present.
8. A judge is required to rule fairly even on the division between two heirs of a two-story house or two different types of ovens.


1. In the next world, a person will be judged for his failure to learn Torah before he is judged for any other sins.
2. Any judge who judges truthfully causes the Shechinah to rest upon Klal Yisrael, while a judge who doesn't judge truthfully causes the Shechinah to remove itself from Klal Yisrael.
3. Rebbi Yonasan derives from a verse that if a judge takes money unjustly from one litigant and gives it to the other, Hashem Yisbarach will take away the judge's soul.
4. The Gemara derives from various verses that a judge may not make a ruling unless the Din is absolutely clear to him.
5. If ten judges arrive at an incorrect verdict together, the punishment is divided between them. Furthermore, if a student was sitting before his Rebbi and was aware that his Rebbi erred in a Din, the student is also punished if he did not speak up to correct his Rebbi.
6. Reish Lakish derives from a verse that appointing an unworthy judge is tantamount to planting an Asheirah tree. If the unworthy judge was appointed in a place where there are Talmidei Chachamim, it is tantamount to planting an Asheirah next to the Mizbe'ach.
7. A Beis Din is not permitted to hear the case of one litigant before the other litigant arrives. It is also forbidden for a litigant to present his case to the judge before the other litigant arrives in Beis Din.
8. If two brothers inherit a two-story house or two different ovens of differing monetary values, a judge may *not* rule that each brother should receive one of the two floors or one of the two ovens regardless of their discrepancy in value. Rather, the judge must evaluate the value of each floor and each oven, and the brother who receives the more valuable one must compensate his brother for the difference.

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