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SANHEDRIN 2 - Dedicated by Elliot and Lori Linzer in honor of the birthday of Yakirah Linzer.


1. Monetary cases are adjudicated by a Beis Din of three judges, and capital cases are judged by a Beis Din of twenty-three judges.
2. A capital case concerning an ox is treated like a capital case concerning a person.
3. A Sanhedri Gedolah consists of seventy-one judges while a Sanhedri Ketanah consists of twenty-three judges.
4. Certain types of cities may not be condemned as Arei Nidachas.
5. A Beis Din must always consist of an odd number of judges.
6. A Beis Din can be established only in a town that meets a minimum size requirement.
7. Some cases can be judged only by a Beis Din of Mumchim.
8. A Beis Din of two judges is never sufficient.


1. According to the Chachamim, all monetary cases except cases of Motzi Shem Ra are judged by three judges. A case of Motzi Shem Ra must be judged by twenty-three judges since it becomes a capital case if the woman was Mezaneh.
2. An ox that kills a person can be sentenced to death only by a Beis Din of twenty-three judges. The Tana Kama rules that a wild animal, as well, can be put to death only by a Beis Din of twenty-three judges, but Rebbi Eliezer maintains that anyone who comes across a wild animal may put it to death, and the act will be a merit for him.
3. A Beis Din of seventy-one judges is needed in order to enlarge Yerushalayim or the Azarah, to establish a Sanhedrin in the cities of the Shevatim, to condemn a city as an Ir ha'Nidachas and to wage an optional war.
4. A city next to a border is never condemned as an Ir ha'Nidachas. In addition, Beis Din may not condemn three cities in close proximity to each other as Arei Nidachas.
5. A Beis Din may decide in *favor* of a defendant with a majority of one judge. In order to find the defendant *guilty*, however, a majority of two judges is required.
6. According to the Tana Kama, a city with one hundred twenty residents is sufficiently large for a Beis Din. Rebbi Nechemyah maintains that a city must have at least two hundred thirty residents in order for a Beis Din to be established there.
7. A Beis Din of three Mumchim (judges with Semichah) is required for any case that involves theft or injuries. A court case concerning a loan, however, does not need to be judged by Mumchim.
8. Rebbi Avahu says: If a Beis Din consists of only two judges, everyone agrees that their Din is not a valid Din.

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