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A person may not tell a child on Shabbos to bring him his keys from Reshus ha'Rabim, but he does not have to stop the child from doing so on his own.
If a Nochri comes to extinguish a fire on Shabbos, one may not tell him to put it out, but he does not have to stop him from doing it on his own.
If a Katan wants to put out a fire for his father, he must be stopped. (1)
If a Chaver finds in his child's hand produce of Demai, he does not have to take it away from him.
If a Kohen finds Terumah in his child's hand that may be Tamei, he does not have to take it away from him.
A baby may nurse from a Nochri or from a non-Kosher animal even on Shabbos.
It is forbidden to feed non-Kosher food to a child.
If a person is in pain, he may milk, into his mouth, the milk of a Kosher animal on Yom Tov. (2)
A person is Chayav even if he eats only a tiny amount from a Sheketz, but for eating blood he is Chayav only for a Revi'is.
If a woman comes back from overseas and claims that her husband died, she is believed, provided that it is not a time of war, and that she had marital harmony. (3)
In a time of famine, a woman is not believed to testify that her husband died. (5)
If a woman claims that her husband died from a collapsing house or was bitten during a plague of snakes, she is not believed.
If a woman claims that her husband died from a plague, some say she is believed and others disagree.
A BIT MORE
1. Since the child knows that the father wants him to put out the fire, it is as if his father is commanding him to do so. Therefore, even according to the opinion that one is not required to stop a Katan from eating Neveilos, in this case the father must stop him.
2. Drinking directly from an animal is a Shinuy (alternate method) from the Melachah of Mefarek (Dash) and is therefore prohibited only mid'Rabanan. On Shabbos, however, it is prohibited, since transgression of Shabbos is punishable with Sekilah. On Yom Tov it is permitted, since the person is in pain and drinking the milk alleviates the pain. However, if one is dangerously ill and the milk will help cure him, it is permitted even on Shabbos, and even without drinking directly from the animal.
3. However, if it was a time of war and the woman says that her husband died at war, she is not believed, because we are concerned that perhaps she merely assumes that he died in war and did not actually see him die. If there was marital discord, she is not believed, because of the possibility that she is lying in order to prohibit herself to him. Rebbi Yehudah says that she is believed only if she comes back crying with her clothes torn.
5. There is a concern that she merely assumed that he died from the famine. Hence, unless she testifies both that he died and that she buried him, she is not believed.
THE MILK OF A NOCHRI
The Beraisa says that a baby may nurse from a Nochri or from a non-Kosher animal even on Shabbos. Rabeinu Chananel says that this Beraisa teaches us that the milk of a Nochri is forbidden. The Rashba, however, disagrees and says that the milk of a Nochri is permitted, but it is a Midas Chasidus not to allow a child to milk from a Nochri because the milk of a Nochri will adversely affect the child. The milk of a Jewish woman -- who fulfills the Mitzvos and has the Jewish characteristics of Rachmanim and Baishanim -- will have a positive effect on the child. The Midrash says that Moshe Rabeinu refused to nurse from a Nochri because he would one day speak with Hashem, and it would have been improper to nurse from a Tamei source. If it was not for that reason, however, it would have been permitted to nurse from a Nochri.
THE MITZVAH OF CHINUCH
Beis Din does not have to stop a Katan who is eating Neveilos. However, it is a Mitzvah for his father to rebuke him and stop him from transgressing an Isur d'Oraisa. (Shulchan Aruch OC 343:1)
The father must stop him because of the Mitzvah of Chinuch. According to some opinions, the Mitzvah of Chinuch applies to the mother as well. (Mishnah Berurah)
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