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CHAGIGAH 22 (11 Iyar) - dedicated by the Feldman family in memory of their mother, ha'Rabbanit Sara Dvosya bas Rav Mordechai (of Milwaukee), on the day of her Yahrzeit.


Rava says that the Mishnah mentions eleven Ma'alos. The first six apply both to Kodesh and to Chulin eaten b'Taharas ha'Kodesh, while the last five Ma'alos apply only to Kodesh.
The practical difference between Rava and Rebbi Ila is whether one may immerse a utensil inside a basket. (1)
If a Mikvah is divided by a basket into two undersized Mikva'os of less than 40 Se'ah each, an immersion in such a Mikvah is not valid. (2)
Even though an immersion of one utensil inside another utensil that has an opening smaller than the tube of a leather flask is not valid, when the outer utensil is Tamei the immersion is valid for both the outer and inner utensils.
Immersing one utensil inside another is prohibited for Kodesh because of the concern that an Am ha'Aretz will see a Chaver doing so and will subsequently do it himself and not be careful about Chatzitzah.
We accept Kodesh from an Am ha'Aretz in order to prevent resentment. (3)
Rebbi Yosi says that everyone is trusted with regard to the Taharah of wine (for Nesachim) and oil (for Menachos) for the entire year, so that people will not build their own altars and burn their own Parah Adumah. (4)
Beis Hillel: An earthenware utensil protects from Tum'as ha'Mes. Beis Shamai: It protects only food, liquids, and other earthenware utensils.
A student of Beis Shamai explained that the reason for the stringency of Beis Shamai is that the utensil of an Am ha'Aretz is Tamei itself and thus cannot protect its contents. (5)
Rebbi Yehoshua's teeth blackened as a result of his constant fasting as repentance for speaking disrespectfully about Beis Shamai.
When a Chaver borrows a utensil from an Am ha'Aretz, he immerses it in a Mikvah prior to using it.
An Am ha'Aretz is believed if he tells us that he never immersed one utensil inside another. However, he is not believed to say that he did immerse one utensil inside another but he did not immerse it inside another utensil with an opening less than the size of a tube of a leather flask.
A Chaver who arrives for the sprinkling of the Parah Adumah (and says that it is day 3) is believed, but an Am ha'Aretz is not believed until he counts day 3 and day 7 in our presence. (6)
If the back of a utensil came into contact with liquid that is Tamei, only the back of the utensil becomes Tamei. If the inside of the utensil came into contact with Tamei liquid, the entire utensil becomes Tamei. (7)


1. Rebbi Ila: The immersion is invalid because the inside utensil will weigh down on the basket. Rava: The immersion is valid because there is no concern that the basket will not have an opening less than the size of a tube of a leather flask.
2. The reason is that even though the basket is porous, the entire earth is also porous and yet we are still required to have a minimum of 40 Se'ah in the same place.
3. We do not accept Terumah from an Am ha'Aretz. There is no concern for resentment, because the Am ha'Aretz will simply give his Terumah to his fellow Am ha'Aretz who is a Kohen.
4. This is in accordance with the reasoning of Rebbi Yosi, who says that we accept testimony from an Am ha'Aretz.
5. The Am ha'Aretz is not willing to heed the Chachamim regarding the Tum'ah of food, drink, and earthenware utensils. Therefore, Beis Shamai is stringent only regarding ordinary utensils that could be purified in a Mikvah.
6. As a result of other stringency with an Am ha'Aretz regarding counting day 3 and day 7, the Chachamim enacted a leniency and trusted him if he says that he purified himself from Tum'as Mes.
7. This applies to a utensil that is used for Terumah. However, for a utensil that is used for Kodesh we do not differentiate between the different parts of the utensil, and if any part of the utensil came into contact with a liquid that is Tamei, the entire utensil becomes Tamei.


Rebbi Yosi states that the reason why everyone is trusted regarding the Taharah of wine (for Nesachim) and oil (for Menachos) the entire year is so that people will not build their own altars and burn their own Parah Adumah. The Turei Even says that the burning of the Parah Adumah has no relevance to trusting them regarding wine and oil. Rather, it is an explanation for the Tosefta (cited by Tosfos) that states that an Am ha'Aretz is trusted to guard the Parah Adumah. The reason why he is trusted is that otherwise he may decide to burn his own Parah Adumah.
Aba Shaul (in the Beraisa) says that one may immerse a utensil inside a basket for Terumah but not for Kodesh. The Gemara asks why this prohibition does not apply to Terumah. The Turei Even asks, why does the Gemara ask that it should also be prohibited for Terumah? After all, the Mishnah lists ten stringencies that apply to Kodesh but not to Terumah, and yet the Gemara asks only that this stringency should apply to Terumah as well. Why does the Gemara ask only about this stringency? The Turei Even answers that the stringency of immersing one utensil inside another differs from the other stringencies because there is a concern for an actual Chatzitzah; it is not just simply a Ma'alah. Therefore, the Gemara asks that we should be stringent regarding Terumah as well.


If a utensil is immersed inside another utensil that is Tamei, even if the opening in the outer utensil is tiny, as long as the water enters the opening it is a valid immersion for both utensils. The reason is that since the immersion is valid for the outer utensil it is valid for the inner utensil as well. If the utensils are immersed on their sides or if the outer utensil is Tahor, the immersion is valid only if the outer utensil has an opening the size of the tube of a leather flask. It is permitted to immerse utensils inside a basket, since the basket is porous, and it is better than a utensil that has an opening the size of the tube of a leather flask (Shulchan Aruch YD 201:9)

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