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MOED KATAN 15

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MOED KATAN 15 (30 Av) - Today's study material has been dedicated by Al and Sophie Ziegler of Har Nof, Yerushalayim, in honor of the Yahrzeit of Al's father, Bernard B. Ziegler - Binyamin Baruch ben Avraham (and Miryam) - on 30 Menachem Av.

SUMMARY

An excommunicated person and a Metzora are prohibited from taking a haircut.
 
A mourner and a Metzora are obligated to cover their heads. (1)
 
A mourner is prohibited from wearing Tefilin. It remains a question to the Gemara whether that applies to an excommunicated person and a Metzora as well.
 
A mourner is prohibited from exchanging greetings of shalom and from learning Torah. (2)
 
A mourner may not do work nor may he bathe or wear shoes. (3)
 
It is forbidden for a mourner or a Metzora to have marital relations and it remains a question to the Gemara regarding an excommunicated person.
 
A mourner and a Metzora may not send their Korbanos to be brought in the Beis ha'Mikdash and it remains a question to the Gemara regarding an excommunicated person.

A BIT MORE

1. It remains a question to the Gemara whether an excommunicated person is obligated to cover his head. However, excommunication in Heaven is more stringent and the person is unquestionably obligated to cover his head.
 
2. An excommunicated person and a Metzora may learn Torah. A Metzora may not exchange greetings and it remains a question whether an excommunicated person may exchange greetings. However, excommunication in Heaven is more stringent and unquestionably the person may not exchange greetings of Shalom.
 
3. It remains a question to the Gemara whether an excommunicated person or a Metzora may bathe or wear shoes. It is permitted for an excommunicated person but remains a question regarding a Metzora.

BRIEF INSIGHT

The Beraisa says that during all of the years in the desert that Klal Yisrael were excommunicated, they sent their Korbanos to the Mishkan. However, the Beraisa in Chagigah quotes R Akiva who says that only Shevet Levi brought Korbanos in the desert. The other Shevatim did not bring any Korbanos in the desert. This seems to contradict our Gemara that says that Klal Yisrael sent their Korbanos to the Mishkan. The Turei Even answers that the Beraisa in our Gemara follows the opinion of Rebbi Yishmael who holds that it was forbidden for Klal Yisrael in the desert to eat meat unless it was from a Korban. According to Rebbi Yishmael they had no choice but to bring a Korban since that was the only way to eat meat. The Beraisa in Chagigah is the words of Rebbi Akiva who holds that it was permitted for Klal Yisrael to eat meat in the desert without a Korban, therefore it was not imperative for them to bring Korbanos. Consequently only Shevet Levi brought Korbanos in the desert. The prohibition for a mourner to put on Tefilin applies only on the first day. After sunrise of the second day he may put his Tefilin on. A mourner is required to sufficiently placate himself so that he could focus on the Tefilin without taking his mind off of them, but he should not wear the Tefilin at the time of eulogy and crying. (Shulchan Aruch YD 388: 1,2)

QUICK HALACHAH

An excommunicated person and a Metzora are prohibited from wearing Tefilin. (Shulchan Aruch OC 38: 13)
 
Many Poskim disagree with the Shulchan Aruch and they say that an excommunicated person and a Metzora must wear Tefilin, therefore the Pri Megadim says he should put them on without reciting a blessing. (Mishnah Berurah)

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