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1. The Gemara discusses the different teachings of the Amora'im which they taught as introductions to learning the Megilah.
2. The Gemara discusses a number of people in Tanach whose names are preceded by the word, "Hu," such as "Hu David."
3. The Gemara explains how Achashverosh became the ruler of the entire world.
4. The Gemara lists three people who ruled over the entire world: Achav. Nevuchadnetzar, and Achashverosh.
5. The Gemara discusses at length how many Nochri kings mistakenly thought that Hashem would never again redeem the Jews.


1. For example, Rebbi Chanina bar Papa would cite the verse in Tehilim (66:12), "You have made a person ride on our heads (i.e. oppress us), we have gone through fire and water, and You took us out satiated." He explained that going "through fire" refers to being thrown into a fiery furnace during the times of Nevuchadnetzar, and "through water" refers to Egypt (when the Egyptians threw the babies into the Nile). "And You took us out satiated" refers to the redemption from the hands of Haman.
2. The rule is that the general status of these people never changed. They were either always righteous or always evil. We therefore find, "Hu Avraham," "Hu Aharon u'Moshe," etc., regarding Tzadikim who were always righteous. We similarly find, "Hu Dasan v'Aviram," "Hu Esav," etc., for people who were always evil.
3. The Gemara says that he originally ruled seven countries, then rose to ruling twenty countries, and from there he rose to ruling over another one hundred countries (the entire world).
4. The Gemara explains that Shlomo ha'Melech is not on this list because he not only ruled this world, but also the spiritual world (of Shedim).
5. They each had reasons for why they thought that the prophesized 70 years of exile had already passed without Hashem redeeming the Jews. However, each king had a faulty understanding of the intention of the prophet.

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