The numbers that appear next to certain entries represent the number assigned to those items in the diagram of the Beis ha'Mikdash of the Tiferes Yisrael (e.g. TY #43). This diagram, which was included in a separate mailing and can be found on our site, is printed both in the Tiferes Yisrael Mishnayos (in Midos Chapter 2 or following Midos) and in Rav P. Kahati's Mishnayos (page 290, at the beginning of Midos).
[25a - 13 lines; 25b - 11 lines]
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach, the Tzon Kodashim and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.
 Rosh [at the beginning of the Perek]:
The words "Ad Sof ha'Perakim" עד סוף הפרקים are unnecessary
1)[line 1]בן עזאי אומר שתי חטאותBEN AZAI OMER SHTEI CHATA'OS- and Ben Azai rules that she must offer two Chata'os, one Tor and one Ben Yonah (since Ben Azai rules (Kinim 2:5) that "Holchin Achar ha'Rishon" and it is possible that she fulfilled her obligation with the first Olas ha'Of that she offered, but it is not known which type that was)
2)[line 2]כשוא חיKESHE'HU CHAI- when it (a ram) is alive
3)[line 2]קולו אחדKOLO ECHAD- it has one "voice," i.e. its bleat
4)[line 2]וכשהוא מת קולו שבעהUCHESHE'HU MES, KOLO SHIV'AH- and when it is dead, it has seven "voices" (as the Mishnah proceeds to delineate; this parallels the case of the woman who must offer seven more birds to fulfill her obligation, when she is in the unfortunate state of the Mishnah)
5)[line 4]חצוצרות CHATZOTZROS- (a) horns used by the musicians to accompany the Leviyim when they sing (since the Chatzotzeros of the Kohanim were made of silver - Menachos 28a) (ROSH, 1st explanation); (b) Shofaros, according to the Gemara (Shabbos 36a, Sukah 34a) that the words "Shofar" and "Chatzotzerah" were interchanged (ROSH, 2nd explanation)
6)[line 4]שוקיו SHOKAV- its thigh bones
7)[line 4]חלילין CHALILIN- flutes
8)[line 4]תוף TOF- a drum
9)[line 5]מעיו ME'AV- its small intestines
10)[line 5]נבלים NEVALIM- [the strings of] lyres
11)[line 5]בני מעיוBNEI ME'AV- its colon (the Hadura d'Kanta, which is thinner, in ruminants, than the small intestine)
12)[line 5]כינורות KINOROS- [the strings of] lutes
13)[line 5]יש אומרים אף צמרו לתכלתYESH OMRIM AF TZIMRO TECHELES- and there are those who state that even its wool is used to make wool dyed the color Techeles [which is used for making the Me'il of the Kohen Gadol, which had bells attached to its hem - MEFARESH, TOSFOS] (this extra "voice" of the ram corresponds to the extra bird required by Ben Azai - RAZAH, CHOK NASAN)
14)[line 7]עליהן דעתן מיטרפתDAITAN MITAREFES ALEIHEM- their minds become more confused
15)[line 8]"מסיר שפה לנאמנים, וטעם זקנים יקח""MESIR SAFAH L'NE'EMANIM, V'TA'AM ZEKENIM YIKACH."- "He removes the speech of those who trust [in themselves], and takes away the understanding of the aged." (Iyov 12:20)
16)[line 10]דעתן מתישבת עליהןDAITAM MISYASHEVES ALEIHEN- their minds are at ease
17)[line 11]"בישישים חכמה, ואורך ימים תבונה""BI'SHISHIM CHOCHMAH, V'ORECH YAMIM TEVUNAH."- "Wisdom is with the aged, and length of days brings understanding." (Iyov 12:12)
HADRAN ALACH HA'SHALI'ACH SHE'ASAH SHELICHUSO U'SELIKA LAH MASECHES KINIM
TAM V'NISHLAM SHEVACH LA'KEL BOREI OLAM
18)[line 1]בשלשה מקומותB'SHELOSHAH MEKOMOS (KORBAN TAMID)
(a)The Korban Tamid, a communal offering (Korban Tzibur), consists of two male sheep that were less than one year old. One sheep was offered at dawn and the second sheep was offered in the afternoon, ideally 2 1/2 Halachic hours before sunset. One tenth of an Eifah (approximately 2.16, 2.49 or 4.32 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) of flour was brought with each sheep as a Minchah (flour offering), which was mixed with one quarter of a Hin (approximately 0.9, 1.04 or 1.8 liters) of hand pressed olive oil. One quarter of a Hin of wine for each sheep was brought as a wine libation (Bamidbar 28:5).
(b)To insure that at least two sheep would be available for the Korban Tamid each day, six sheep were kept in the Lishkas ha'Tela'im, the Chamber of Lambs (TY # 43, also known as the Lishkas ha'Korban or Lishkas Tela'ei Korban). The lambs were checked for four days prior to being offered to ensure that they had no Mum (blemish).
There is a Mitzvas Aseh to guard the Mikdash and to patrol it every night, as the verse states "v'Shamru Es Mishmeres Ohel Mo'ed" - "and they shall keep the charge of the Tent of Meeting" (Bamidbar 18:4). The purpose for guarding it is in order to glorify the Beis ha'Mikdash; not to safeguard it from thieves and enemies (SEFER HA'CHINUCH #388; see Insights). There is also a prohibition to interrupt the Shemirah, which is learned from the verse "u'Shemartem Es Mishmeres ha'Kodesh" (Bamidbar 18:5). (SEFER HA'CHINUCH #391)
20)[line 3]בית אבטינסBEIS AVTINAS- VS #63; TY #34 (see Insights). This Lishkah had an upper story where a Kohen stood guard. It is the place where the Ketores was made.
21)[line 3]בית הניצוץBEIS HA'NITZOTZ- VS #57; TY #40. This Lishkah was a portico, open on one side, with an upper story where a Kohen stood guard. According to the Rosh, it was given this name because the sunlight shone into it, making it very well-lit.
22)[line 3]בית המוקדBEIS HA'MOKED- VS #51; TY #43. The Fireplace Room was a large, domed room where Kohanim could warm themselves. (They became chilled easily while working barefoot outdoors, on cold, marble floors.)
23)[line 4]עליות ALIYOS- [they contained] upper stories
24)[line 4]הרובים HA'ROVIM- the very young Kohanim (see Insights to Tamid 27:1)
25)[line 5]כיפה KIPAH- a dome
26)[line 6]רובדין של אבןROVADIN SHEL EVEN- stone slabs
27)[line 6]בית אבBEIS AV (MISHMAROS / BEIS AV)
(a)The Kohanim were divided into 24 shifts (Mishmaros) according to their families, each of which served in the Mikdash for two one-week periods during the course of a year. The Mishmaros changed on Shabbos, when the outgoing Mishmar did the Avodah in the morning and the incoming Mishmar did the Avodah in the afternoon.
(b)Every Mishmar was further divided into six Batei Avos, with the Kohanim of each Beis Av serving on a different day of the week. On Shabbos, all of the Batei Avos of the Mishmar did the Avodah together (RASHI to Menachos 107b). Some contend that the Mishmaros were divided into seven, and not six, groups, and only one group served on Shabbos (RASHI to Ta'anis 26a - for a further discussion of this topic, see Insights to Shekalim 18:1).
(c)On the Shalosh Regalim (the holidays of Pesach, Shavu'os and Sukos) all of the Mishmaros Kehunah came to Yerushalayim to fulfill the Mitzvah of Aliyah l'Regel. At those times, Kohanim from any Mishmar were permitted to do the Avodah of the Regel.
(d)The 24 Mishmaros, as listed in Divrei ha'Yamim I 24:7-18, are:
28)[line 7]פרחי כהונהPIRCHEI KEHUNAH- young Kohanim (see Insights to Tamid 27:1)
29)[line 8]כסתו KESASO- (a) his clothing (MEFARESH); (b) his pillow (ROSH)