12th CYCLE DEDICATION
KESUVOS 6-7 - Generously sponsored by Marsha and Lee Weinblatt of Teaneck, New Jersey. May Hashem bless them with a Kesivah va'Chasimah for a year of health, prosperity and much Yiddishe Nachas from their wonderful children and grandchildren.

1)

(a)What did Rebbi Ami permit, besides marrying on Shabbos?

(b)What problem did the Rabanan have with Rebbi Ami's ruling?

(c)How do we answer the Kashya?

(d)What, according to others, did Rebbi Zevid actually do?

1)

(a)Rebbi Ami permitted someone to marry - and to consummate the marriage on Shabbos.

(b)The problem the Rabanan had with Rebbi Ami's ruling is - how he could do that, seeing as the woman did not have a Kesuvah (and it is forbidden to live with a woman without Kesuvah)!

(c)We answer - that until such time as the Kesuvah was written, Rebbi Ami would order the husband to give her objects as collateral.

(d)According to others, Rebbi Zevid - actually consummated his marriage on Shabbos.

2)

(a)Rav Yehudah permitted marriage on Yom Tov. If, as Rav Papi in the name of Rava maintains, this ruling incorporates Shabbos, why did he confine his statement to Yom Tov?

(b)Rav Papa in the name of Rava, Rav Yehudah did indeed confine his ruling to Yom Tov, forbidding marriage on Shabbos. Why is that?

(c)How does 'Mitoch' apply in this case?

2)

(a)Rav Yehudah permitted marriage on Yom Tov. According to Rav Papi in the name of Rava, this ruling included Shabbos, and the reason that he confined his statement to Yom Tov is - because that happened to be the case about which he was asked to issue a ruling.

(b)According to Rav Papa in the name of Rava, Rav Yehudah did indeed confine his ruling to Yom Tov, forbidding marriage on Shabbos - because in his opinion, the concession of consummating the marriage on Yom Tov is based on the principle of 'Mitoch' (a form of 'Migo'), which applies on Yom Tov, but not on Shabbos.

(c)'Mitoch' applies here as 'Mitoch she'Hutrah Chaburah (by Shechitah) l'Tzorech, Hutrah Nami she'Lo l'Tzorech' (since making a wound is permitted with regard to Shechitah, which is permitted on Yom Tov, it is also permitted in areas outside of Shechitah).

3)

(a)Rav Papi queried Rav Papa from Mugmar. What is the Din regarding Mugmar on Yom Tov?

(b)What was Rav Papi's Kashya?

(c)To answer the Kashya, Rav Papa quoted the Pasuk in Bo "Ach Asher Ye'achel la'Chol Nefesh". Based on that Pasuk, how does he differentiate between the two cases?

(d)Seeing as most people do not eat venison on Yom Tov (only the very wealthy [see Maharam]), why is Shechting and cooking it permitted?

3)

(a)Rav Papi queried Rav Papa from Mugmar (incense burned on a fire to impregnate vessels or clothes with a pleasant aroma) - which is forbidden on Yom Tov.

(b)Why, he asked Rav Papa, should Mugmar too, not be permitted because of Yom Tov (seeing as making a fire for cooking is permitted)?!

(c)To answer Rav Papi's Kashya, Rav Papa quoted the Pasuk in Bo "Ach Asher Ye'achel l'Chol Nefesh" - from which we learn that, even with the principle of 'Mitoch', a Melachah only becomes permitted if it is needed by the majority of people ('Shaveh l'Chol Nefesh'). Consequently, Mugmar is forbidden because it is confined to finicky people, whereas Bi'ah, which is something that everybody does, is permitted.

(d)Despite the fact that most people do not eat venison on Yom Tov, Shechting and cooking it is nevertheless permitted - because it is not because the poor do not need it that they do not eat it, but because it is not available to them (if they had the chance, they too would eat it).

4)

(a)What problem do we have with Rav Yakov bar Idi's statement 'Horeh Rebbi Yochanan b'Tzaidan Asur li'Ve'ol bi'Techilah b'Shabbos'?

(b)The truth of the matter is however, that we do have precedents for the use of 'Horeh' l'Chumra. Which ruling did Beis Hillel issue with regard to Queen Hilni, in connection with which the word 'Horeh' is used?

(c)An animal with a broken spinal cord is Tereifah. According to Rebbi, most of the diameter must be cracked to be considered a Tereifah. However, 'Horeh Rebbi k'Rebbi Yakov'. What does Rebbi Yakov say?

(d)What did Rav Huna say about this?

4)

(a)The problem we have with Rav Yakov bar Idi's statement 'Horeh Rebbi Yochanan b'Tzaidan Asur li'V'ol b'Techilah b'Shabbos' - is that we normally associate the word 'Horeh' with a leniency, not with a stringency (seeing as being strict does not really require a careful ruling, since a person who is in doubt needs to rule stringently).

(b)The truth of the matter is however, that we do have precedents for the use of 'Horeh' l'Chumra. For example, Beis Hillel ruled - that Queen Hilni, who took a seven-year Nezirus vow in Chutz la'Aretz, when her son went to war, had to begin all over again when she came to Eretz Yisrael.

(c)An animal with a broken spinal cord is Tereifah. According to Rebbi, most of the diameter must be cracked to be considered a Tereifah. However, 'Horeh Rebbi k'Rebbi Yakov' - who declares an animal Tereifah with even the smallest hole in its spinal cord.

(d)Rav Huna disagrees with Rebbi's ruling. He rules - not like Rebbi Yakov.

5)

(a)Rebbi Avahu was present when Rebbi Yishmael ben Yakov asked Rebbi Yochanan whether one is permitted to consummate one's marriage on Shabbos. What was his reply?

(b)What is the ultimate ruling in this matter?

5)

(a)Rebbi Avahu was present when Rebbi Yishmael ben Yakov asked Rebbi Yochanan whether the first Bi'ah was permitted on Shabbos. He replied - that it is forbidden.

(b)The ultimate ruling in this matter however, is - that it is permitted.

6)

(a)How do we reconcile Rav Huna's ruling (that an Almanah does not require Birchas Chasanim [Sheva Berachos]) with another statement of his, where, cited by Rebbi Chelbo, he rules in the name of ...Rav that an Almanah, as well as a Besulah, requires Birchas Chasanim?

(b)What does Rav Nachman quoting Huna bar Nasan, learn from the Pasuk in Ruth "va'Yikach Asarah Anashim mi'Ziknei ha'Ir va'Yomer 'Shvu Poh'! va'Yeshvu"?

(c)What were the respective statuses of the Chasan and Kalah in that case?

(d)But did Rav Huna not just say that there is no Birchas Chasanim for an Almon who married an Almanah?

6)

(a)We reconcile Rav Huna's ruling (that an Almanah does not require Birchas Chasanim [Sheva Berachos]) with another statement of his, where, cited by Rebbi Chelbo, he rules in the name of ...Rav that an Almanah, as well as a Besulah, requires Birchas Chasanim - by establishing the former when she married an Almon, and the latter, when she married a Bachur.

(b)Rav Nachman quoting Huna bar Nasan, learns from the Pasuk in Ruth "va'Yikach Asarah Anashim mi'Ziknei ha'Ir va'Yomer 'Shvu Poh'! va'Yeshvu" - that Birchas Chasanim requires a Minyan.

(c)The respective statuses of the Chasan (Boaz) and Kalah (Ruth) in that case were - Almon and Almanah.

(d)When Rav Huna said that there is no Birchas Chasanim for an Almon who married an Almanah - he meant for seven days, but on the first day, he concedes that there is.

7)

(a)What problem does the previous ruling create with what we learned earlier with regard to an Almanah marrying on Thursday and consummating the marriage on Friday?

(b)To resolve the problem, we establish the latter with regard to Almon and an Almanah, and draw a distinction between Simchah (which requires three days), and Birchas Chasanim (which requires only one). Alternatively, we establish it even by a Bachur and an Almanah. How is this possible?

7)

(a)This creates a problem however, with what we learned earlier with regard to an Almanah marrying on Thursday and consummating the marriage on Friday - where we explained that Chazal were particular that even an Almanah should have three days Simchah (and not just one)!

(b)To resolve the problem, we establish the latter with regard to Almon and an Almanah, and draw a distinction between Simchah (which requires three days), and Birchas Chasanim (which requires only one). Alternatively, we establish it even by a Bachur and an Almanah - who requires three days for Simchah, but seven, for Birchas Chasanim.

7b----------------------------------------7b

8)

(a)How many days of Sheva Berachos does one give ...

1. ... a Besulah?

2. ... an Almanah who marries a Bachur?

3. ... an Almanah who marries an Almon?

(b)Then why does the Beraisa say 'Mevorchin li'Vesulah Shiv'ah, ul'Almanah Yom Echad', disregarding the case of three days?

8)

(a)One gives ...

1. ... a Besulah - seven days of Sheva Berachos.

2. ... an Almanah who marries a Bachur - seven days.

3. ... an Almanah who marries an Almon - one day.

(b)The Beraisa says 'Mevorchin li'Vesulah Shiv'ah, ul'Almanah Yom Echad', disregarding the case of three days - because his intention is to inform us that there is no Besulah who gets less than seven days and no Almanah who gets less than one.

9)

(a)We quoted earlier Rav Nachman citing Huna bar Nasan, who learns from the Pasuk in Ruth ("va'Yikach Asarah Anashim ... ") that Birchas Chasanim requires a Minyan. From which Pasuk in Tehilim does Rebbi Avahu learn it?

(b)Rav Nachman Darshens from the Pasuk in Tehilim like Rebbi Meir in a Beraisa. What does Rebbi Meir say?

(c)In light of Rebbi Meir's Derashah, how does Rebbi Avahu also extrapolate from the Pasuk the Din that Sheva Berachos requires a Minyan?

(d)And according to Rebbi Avahu, why does the Pasuk find it necessary to teach us that Boaz collected ten people, if not for the purpose of Sheva Berachos? Why does Rebbi Avahu prefer not to learn Sheva Berachos from there?

9)

(a)We quoted earlier Rav Nachman citing Huna bar Nasan, who learns from the Pasuk in Ruth ("va'Yikach Asarah Anashim ... ") that Birchas Chasanim requires a Minyan. Rebbi Avahu learns it from the Pasuk in Tehilim - "b'Makhelos Barchu Elokim, Hash-m mi'Mekor Yisrael".

(b)Rav Nachman Darshens from the Pasuk in Tehilim like Rebbi Meir in a Beraisa, who learns from there that - following the miracles of the Yam Suf, even the unborn fetuses sang Shirah to Hash-m.

(c)In spite of Rebbi Meir's Derashah, Rebbi Avahu also extrapolates from this Pasuk the Din that Sheva Berachos requires a Minyan - from the fact that the Pasuk uses the Lashon "mi'Mekor" (which has the connotation of marriage and Bi'ah) rather than "mi'Beten".

(d)And according to Rebbi Avahu, the Pasuk informs us that Boaz collected ten people, not in order to teach us Sheva Berachos (which would not have required elders [Dayanim]) - but that he wanted to publicize the Halachah of "Amoni", 'v'Lo Amonis' ... (in connection with which a major dispute was threatening the validity of Malchus Beis David).

10)

(a)And how does Rebbi Avahu explain Boaz's need to teach us the Halachah of "Amoni" 'v'Lo Amonis' in front of so many people?

(b)We prove this from Shmuel, who instructed Rav Chana Bagdesa'ah to gather ten people in order to issue a certain ruling in front of them. Which ruling?

(c)Do we indeed follow Shmuel's ruling in that matter?

(d)Shmuel's disciple was called Rav Chana Bagdesa'ah. What does 'Bagdesa'ah' mean?

10)

(a)Rebbi Avahu explains Boaz's need to teach us the Halachah of "Amoni" 'v'Lo Amonis ... ' in front of so many people - in order to garner as much publicity as possible.

(b)We prove this from Shmuel, who instructed Rav Chana Bagdesa'ah to gather ten people in order to issue the ruling in front of them - that, 'ha'Mezakeh l'Ubar Kanah' (meaning that if someone acquires something on behalf of a fetus, then he [the fetus] acquires it), even though he is not yet in the world.

(c)We do not however, follow Shmuel's ruling in that matter - because we rule 'v'Hilchasa ' ha'Mezakeh l'Ubar, Lo Kanah'.

(d)Shmuel's disciple was called Rav Chana Bagdesa'ah - meaning that he hailed from Baghdad.

11)

(a)The Tana Kama requires Birchas Chasanim when one goes under the Chupah. What does Rebbi Yehudah add to that?

(b)Abaye confines Rebbi Yehudah's ruling to the province of Yehudah. Why is that?

(c)Which Berachah does the Tana Kama concede that one recites at the Erusin?

(d)What is the source for the statement (in Birchas Erusin) 'v'Asar Lanu es ha'Arusos'?

11)

(a)The Tana Kama requires Birchas Chasanim when one goes under the Chupah. Rebbi Yehudah adds - that the Erusin requires Birchas Chasanim, too.

(b)Abaye confines Rebbi Yehudah's ruling to the province of Yehudah - where the Chasan and Kalah would meet privately (and were generally intimate - creating the need to recite Sheva Berachos first [in order to avoid contravening the Halachah 'Kalah b'Lo Berachah Asurah l'Ba'alah k'Nidah']).

(c)The Tana Kama concedes that one recites - Birchas Erusin at the Erusin.

(d)The source for the statement (in Birchas Erusin) 've'Asar Lanu es ha'Arusos' - is the Beraisa 'Kalah b'Lo Berachah Asurah l'Ba'alah k'Nidah' (and which in fact, is purely mid'Rabanan).

12)

(a)According to Rav Acha Brei d'Rava, one concludes Birchas Erusin 'Baruch ... Mekadesh Yisrael al-Yedei Chupah v'Kidushin' because he compares it to Kidush. In which regard\s is Birchas Erusin similar to Kidush?

(b)What is the reason of Ravin and Rabah, sons of Rav Ada, in whose opinion one does not conclude Birchas Erusin with a Berachah? To what do they compare it?

12)

(a)According to Rav Acha Brei d'Rava, one concludes Birchas Erusin 'Baruch ... Mekadesh Yisrael al-Yedei Chupah v'Kidushin' because he compares it to Kidush - regarding both the length of the Berachah (inasmuch as it contains various phrases in between the beginning and the end), and its title ('Kidushin').

(b)Ravin and Rabah, sons of Rav Ada, rule that one does not conclude Birchas Erusin with a Berachah - because it is similar to the Berachos over fruit and Mitzvos, inasmuch as the entire Berachah is all thanks to Hash-m, and does contain any additional requests.

13)

(a)The Beraisa requires Birchas Chasanim to be said all seven days, provided there are ten people. How does Rav Yehudah qualify this ruling further?

13)

(a)The Beraisa requires Birchas Chasanim to be said all seven days, provided there are ten people. Rav Yehudah qualifies this ruling further - by confining it to where there is at least one new person (who had not attended the Simchah previously [i.e. 'Panim Chadashos').

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