Mishnah 1
Hear the Mishnah

1)

(a)R. Yehudah adds another six Machlokos where Beis Shamai is lenient, and Beis Hillel, strict (see Tosfos Yom-Tov). What do Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel respectively, say about the blood of a Neveilos?

(b)They also argue over the egg of a Neveilah (bird). What is the case?

(c)What do Beis Shamai mean when they permit it provided there are eggs like it being sold in the market?

(d)Why do they otherwise forbid it?

1)

(a)R. Yehudah adds another six Machlokos where Beis Shamai is lenient, and Beis Hillel, strict (see Tosfos Yom-Tov). Beis Shamai - declare Tahor the blood of a Neveilos; whereas Beis Hillel - declare it Tamei (see Rashash).

(b)They also argue over the egg of a Neveilah (bird) - that is found inside the mother after its has been 'Shechted'.

(c)When Beis Shamai permit it provided there are eggs like it being sold in the market, they mean - that its shell is hard like those of regular eggs.

(d)Otherwise they forbid it - because it is considered part of the bird's intestines.

2)

(a)What do Beis Hillel say about the egg of a Neveilah?

(b)What do Beis Shamai say about the egg of a Tereifah?

(c)Why is that?

2)

(a)Beis Hillel - forbid the egg of a Neveilah.

(b)Beis Shamai - concede that the egg of a Tereifah is forbidden ...

(c)... because (unlike that of a Neveilah, which was killed suddenly) it grew be'Isur.

3)

(a)What do we learn from the Pasuk in Shemini (in connection with Tum'as Zivus) "Dabru el B'nei Yisrael ... "?

(b)What did the Rabbanan decree in this regard?

(c)Why is it necessary to know that it is only mi'de'Rabbanan?

3)

(a)We learn from the Pasuk in Shemini (in connection with Tum'as Zivus) "Dabru el B'nei Yisrael ... " - that Nochrim are not subject to Tum'as Zivus.

(b)The Rabanan however - decreed that they should be like Zavim in all regards.

(c)It is necessary to know that it is only mi'de'Rabbanan - in order not to burn Terumah and Kodshim that they touch (even though they are Tamei).

4)

(a)Why, according to Beis Shamai, did the Rabbanan declare Tamei the spit and the urine of a Nochris, but not her blood?

(b)If Beis Hillel declare it Tamei 'like her spit and her urine', how will we remember that it is only mi'de'Rabbanan?

(c)The Mishnah also inserts Dam Taharah shel Metzora'as in the current ruling. What is 'Dam Taharah shel Metzora'as'?

(d)What do Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel respectively, hold?

4)

(a)According to Beis Shamai, the Rabbanan declared Tamei the spit and the urine of a Nochris, but not her blood - as a reminder that it is only mi'de'Rabbanan (as we just explained).

(b)Beis Hillel declare it Tamei 'like her spit and her urine' - which means wet but dry, to remind us that it is only mi'de'Rabbanan, since when it concerns Tum'ah d'Oraysa, blood is Metamei even when it is dry.

(c)The Mishnah also inserts Dam Taharah shel Metzora'as - (the blood of a Metzora'as from the second week after giving birth to a boy, and from the third week after giving birth to a girl) in the current ruling.

(d)Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel respectively - list it together with Dam Nochris.

5)

(a)Beis Shamai permit eating Sh'mitah fruits from somebody else's field 'be'Tovah ve'she'Lo be'Tovah'. What does 'be'Tovah' mean?

(b)What is Beis Hillel's reason (according to the text that read 'Ein Ochlin ...

1. ... be'Tovah' [see Tosfos Yom-Tov')?

2. ... Ela be'Tovah')?

5)

(a)When Beis Shamai permit eating Sh'mitah fruits from somebody else's field 'be'Tovah' - (thanking the owner of the field for the fruit that he ate) 'she'Lo be'Tovah'.

(b)Beis Hillel's reason (according to the text that read 'Ein Ochlin ...

1. ... be'Tovah' is - because the Torah has rendered all fruit Hefker, in which case the owner of the field is not the owner of the fruit.

2. ... Ela be'Tovah'[see Tosfos Yom-Tov']) to prevent people from extending this concession to the other six years of the cycle.

6)

(a)What is a 'Cheimes'?

(b)On what condition do Beis Shamai declare one which is holed but tied with a knot, subject to Tum'ah?

(c)What do Beis Hillel say?

6)

(a)A 'Cheimes' is - a leather flask.

(b)Beis Shamai declare one which is holed but tied with a knot, subject to Tum'ah - provided after the knot is untied, the two parts of the skin that were tied together have sealed sufficiently to hold the whatever is inside the flask.

(c)Beis Hillel - render it subject to Tum'ah anyway (see Tosfos Yom-Tov).

Mishnah 2
Hear the Mishnah

7)

(a)R. Yossi adds yet another six Machlokos where Beis Shamai is lenient, and Beis Hillel, strict. What do Beis Shamai say about placing chicken on the same table as cheese?

(b)What would be the Din regarding meat and cheese?

(c)Why do Beis Shamai then rule leniently by chicken and cheese?

(d)What do Beis Hillel say?

7)

(a)R. Yossi adds yet another six Machlokos where Beis Shamai is lenient, and Beis Hillel, strict. Beis Shamai - permit placing chicken on the same table as cheese, though it may not be eaten.

(b)They concede however - that meat is forbidden ...

(c)... since whereas the former is only mi'de'Rabbanan, the latter is min ha'Torah.

(d)Beis Hillel - forbid placing even chicken on the same table as cheese.

8)

(a)What do Beis Shamai say about Ma'asering olives to cover oil and grapes to cover wine?

(b)What do Beis Hillel say?

(c)How do they learn it from the Pasuk in Korach "ka'Dagan min ha'Goren"?

8)

(a)Beis Shamai - permit Ma'asering olives to cover oil and grapes to cover wine ...

(b)... whereas Beis Hillel forbid it (see Tosfos Yom-Tov) ...

(c)They learn it from the Pasuk in Korach "ka'Dagan min ha'Goren" - implying that may may only Ma'aser from what has been completed (such as wine) on what has been completed, but not from what has not (such as grapes).

9)

(a)How close to a vineyard is one permitted to plant seeds?

(b)What do we learn from the Pasuk in Ki Seitzei (in connection with Kil'ai ha'Kerem) "Pen Tikdash ha'Melei'ah u'Tevu'as ha'Kerem"?

(c)Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel now argue over how many rows become Asur, one (Beis Shamai) or two (Beis Hillel). What is the basis of their Machlokes?

9)

(a)One is permitted to plant seeds - four Amos away from a vineyard.

(b)We learn from the Pasuk in Ki Seitzei (in connection with Kil'ai ha'Kerem) "Pen Tikdash ha'Melei'ah u'Tevu'as ha'Kerem" - that if one plants them within four Amos, the vineyard becomes Asur.

(c)Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel now argue over how many rows become Asur, one (Beis Shamai) or two (Beis Hillel). The basis of their Machlokes is - whether one row is called 'a vineyard (Beis Shamai) or at least two (Beis Hillel [see Tosfos Yom-Tov]).

10)

(a)They also argue over whether a Me'isah is Chayav Chalah or not. What is a 'Me'isah'?

(b)What does each opinion hold?

(c)Beis Shamai permit Tevilah in a Chard'lis. What is a 'Chardelis'?

(d)What do Beis Hillel say?

10)

(a)They also argue over whether a 'Me'isah' - (flour that pours on to boiling water) is Chayav Chalah or not ...

(b)... which Beis Shamai exempt, but Beis Hillel obligate.

(c)Beis Shamai permit Tevilah in a 'Chard'lis' - (a stream of water that is flowing down a slope (like 'Har-d'lis), even if the entire stream consists only of forty Sa'ah.

(d)Beis Hillel - forbid it, because they require the forty Sa'ah to be in one spot.

11)

(a)What do Beis Shamai say about a Ger who converted and Toveled on Erev Pesach?

(b)What do Beis Hillel mean when they say 'ha'Poresh min ha'Arlah, ke'Poresh min ha'Kever'?

(c)What about a Yisrael who has the B'ris Milah on Erev Pesach?

(d)Why the difference?

11)

(a)Beis Shamai - permit a Ger who converted and Toveled on Erev Pesach to eat the Korban Pesach.

(b)When Beis Hillel say 'ha'Poresh min ha'Arlah, ke'Poresh min ha'Kever', they mean - that, like someone who touches a grave, he he forbidden to eat Kodshim or enter the Beis-Hamikdash for seven days (until he has been sprinkled with the ashes of the Parah Adumah).

(c)A Yisrael who has the B'ris Milah on Erev Pesach - may Tovel and eat the Korban Pesach immediately ...

(d)... because Beis Hillel's stringency is based on the concern that, the following year, the Nochri will actually be Tamei Meis, and will think that, just as in the previous year, he had touched a dead person and eaten the Korban Pesach immediately, so too will he be permitted to do so this year (without realizing that whereas last year he was not subject to Tum'as Meis, this year he is). And this reason does not apply to a Yisrael who has the B'ris Milah.

Mishnah 3
Hear the Mishnah

12)

(a)R. Yishmael (see Tosfos Yom-Tov) adds three items to the list of 'Beis Shamai le'Kula and Beis Hillel le'Chumra'. What do they say respectively, about Seifer Koheles?

(b)What is the basis of their Machlokes?

(c)And what do they say respectively, about the leftovers of Mei Chatas with which their Mitzvah has already been performed?

12)

(a)R. Yishmael (see Tosfos Yom-Tov) adds three items to the list of 'Beis Shamai le'Kula and Beis Hillel le'Chumra'. Beis Shamai rule - that Seifer Koheles is not Metamei the hands; Beis Hillel rule that it is.

(b)The basis of their Machlokes is - whether it comprises the Chochmah of Shlomoh ha'Melech (Beis Shamai) or, like the other Sefarim of T'nach, it was written with Ru'ach-ha'Kodesh (Beis Hillel).

(c)Beis Shamai declare Tahor the leftovers of Mei Chatas with which their Mitzvah has already been performed; Beis Hillel declare it Tamei.

13)

(a)The third item on R. Yishmael's list is whether Katzach is subject to Tum'ah or not. What is 'Katzach'?

(b)On what grounds do Beis Shamai consider it Tahor?

(c)Then why is it eaten?

(d)What do Beis Hillel say?

13)

(a)The third item on R. Yishmael's list is whether Katzach - (poppy-seeds [see also Tosfos Yom-Tov]) is subject to Tum'ah or not.

(b)Beis Shamai consider it Tahor - because they do not consider it a food (see Tosfos Yom-Tov).

(c)It is nevertheless eaten - because it prevents heart pains.

(d)Beis Hillel consider it a food - because it is eaten.

14)

(a)Which other area of Halachah is affected by the current Machlokes?

(b)What does each opinion hold?

14)

(a)By the same token, they also argue over whether it is subject to Ma'asros.

(b)Beis Hillel - say that it is; Beis Shamai - that it is not.

Mishnah 4
Hear the Mishnah

15)

(a)R. Eliezer adds another two items to the current list of Kulei Beis Shamai ve'Chumrei Beis Hillel. Beis Shamai equate the blood of a a Yoledes (a woman who has given birth and) who failed to Tovel after seven days for a boy or fourteen, for a girl, with her spit and urine. What is the significance of this ruling?

(b)Why is that?

15)

(a)R. Eliezer adds another two items to the current list of Kulei Beis Shamai ve'Chumrei Beis Hillel. Beis Shamai equate the blood of a Yoledes ( a woman has given birth and) who failed to Tovel after seven days for a boy or fourteen, for a girl, with her spit and urine - which are Metamei only as long as they are wet (as we learned earlier in the Perek) ...

(b)... because they do not consider it Dam Nidah.

16)

(a)What do Beis Hillel say?

(b)What do Beis Shamai say about the blood of a Yoledes be'Zov?

(c)What is the case?

16)

(a)According to Beis Hillel - the blood of a Yoledes who did not Tovel is Metamei even after it has become dry.

(b)Beis Shamai concede however - that the blood of a Yoledes be'Zov is Metamei even after it has become dry.

(c)The case is where a woman gave birth be'Zov, and who after failing to count seven clean days and then Tovel, saw blood during the subsequent period when any blood that she sees would normally be Tahor.

Mishnah 5
Hear the Mishnah

17)

(a)What does the Tana Kama rule in a case where the two of four brothers who were married to two sisters, died? What do the two surviving brothers do?

(b)Why can they not perform Yibum?

(c)What if they did perform Yibum?

17)

(a)In a case where the two of four brothers who were married to two sisters, died, the Tana Kama rules - that the the remaining two brothers perform Chalitzah, but not Yibum ...

(b)... because each of the Yevamos is Achos Zekukaso of the other one (which is like a wife's sister)..

(c)And in the event that they did perform Yibum - they are obligated to divorce immediately.

18)

(a)According to R. Eliezer, the latter ruling is the opinion of Beis Hillel. What do Beis Shamai say?

(b)What does the Gemara in Yevamos say about this Machlokes?

(c)What is the Halachah?

18)

(a)According to R. Eliezer, the latter ruling is the opinion of Beis Hillel. According to Beis Shamai - having married them, they may remain together.

(b)The Gemara in Yevamos - switches round the opinions, and it is Beis Hillel who permits them to remain married ...

(c)... and that is the Halachah.

Mishnah 6
Hear the Mishnah

19)

(a)How many things did Akavya ben Mahalalel testify?

(b)What did the Chachamim say they would do if he recanted on all of them?

(c)How did he respond to that?

(d)Why did he mean by 'Rasha'?

19)

(a)Akavya ben Mahalalel testified four things.

(b)The Chachamim told if that if he recanted on all of them - they would appoint him Av Beis-Din ...

(c)... to which he replied - that he would rather be called a fool all his life than a Rasha even for one moment ...

(d)... for retracting merely in order to attain a position o honor (see Tosfos Yom-Tov).

20)

(a)In the first of these four testimonies, Akavya declared Sa'ar ha'Pekudah Tamei. What is 'Sa'ar ha'Pekudah'?

(b)Why does the Tana call it by that name?

(c)The Chachamim disagreed with him on the basis of the Pasuk in Tazri'a "ve'Hi Hafchah Se'ar Lavan". What did they Darshen from the word "ve'Hi"?

(d)On what grounds did he also declare Tamei the yellow or green (like an Esrog) blood of a woman?

20)

(a)In the first of these four testimonies, Akavya declared 'Sa'ar ha'Pekudah' - (a Baheres in which two white hairs grew, but which then disappeared, only to reappear with the hairs still inside it) Tamei.

(b)The Tana calls it by that name - from the Lashon 'Pikadon', since the original Baheres left the hairs as a security, as it were, for the subsequent Baheres to take them over).

(c)The Chachamim disagreed with him on the basis of the Pasuk in Tazri'a "ve'Hi Hafchah Se'ar Lavan" - from which they learn that the current Baheres ('it') must grow the white hair, and not its predecessor.

(d)He also declared Tamei the yellow or green (like an Esrog) blood of a woman - because he considered it to be blood that was originally the color of a bright-red crocus that changed its appearance.

21)

(a)In his third testimony, what did he rule with regard to wool of a blemished Bechor that fell out and that he had placed on the window-sill?

(b)What is the significance of the Mishnah's addendum 'and that had been placed on the window-sill' (see Tosfos Yom-Tov)?

(c)The reason that the Chachamim argued with him is based on the Pasuk in Re'ei (in connection with Pesulei ha'Mukdashim) "Tizbach Ve'achalta Basar". What do we learn from there.

(d)On what grounds did ...

1. ... Akavya then permit it?

2. ... the Chachamim dispute that?

21)

(a)In his third testimony - he permitted a Bechor to benefit from wool of a blemished Bechor that fell out and that he had placed on the window-sill.

(b)The Mishnah's addendum 'and that he placed placed on the window-sill' (see Tosfos Yom-Tov) - is merely the norm, and has no significance whatsoever.

(c)The reason that the Chachamim argued with him is based on the Pasuk in Re'ei (in connection with Pesulei ha'Mukdashim) "Tizbach Ve'achalta Basar" - from which we learn that Kodshim that have become Pasul may be eaten, but the shearings and working with them remain prohibited.

(d)The reason that ...

1. ... Akavya permitted it was - because since the Shechitah permits the wool that was attached to it at the time, it also permits the wool that was shorn previously ...

2. ... which the Chachamim dispute - for fear that the Kohanim will then wait before Shechting a Bechor with a blemish, until they have accumulated a substantial amount of wool, at the same working with it until the Shechitah (see also Tosfos Yom-Tov).

22)

(a)What did Akavya hold, with regard to giving the Mei Sotah to a Giyores, based on the Pasuk "le'Alah ve'li'Shevu'ah be'Soch Amech"?

(b)Who else is affected by this ruling?

(c)What do the Chachamim say?

(d)What scornful comment did Akavya make when the Chachamim supported their ruling with Shemayah and Avtalyon, who once made Karkemis drink the Mei Sotah? Who was Karkemis (see Tosfos Yom-Tov)?

(e)What else might he have meant?

22)

(a)Based on the Pasuk "le'Alah ve'li'Shevu'ah be'Soch Amech", Akavya maintained - that one does not give the Mei Sotah to a Giyores ...

(b)... or to a Shifchah Meshuchreres (who has been set free), to drink ...

(c)The Chachamim - include them in the Din of Mei Sotah.

(d)When the Chachamim supported their ruling with Shemayah and Avtalyon, who once made Karkemis (a Shifchah Meshuchreres) drink the Mei Sotah, Akavya commented (scornfully) - that they gave to drink one of their own kind (since they too were converts).

(e)What he might have meant was - that they did not really make her drink the water, but made out as if they did (see Tosfos Yom-Tov).

23)

(a)How did the Chachamim react to Akavya ben Mahalalel's comment? Why did they do that?

(b)And what did they do when he died without having released his Niduy?

(c)On what grounds did R. Yehudah vehemently opposed the above version of the story? What did he mean when he referred to 'the gates closing ... '?

(d)In which two regards did he consider Akavya unique?

23)

(a)The Chachamim reacted to Akavya ben Mahalalel's comment - by declaring a Niduy on him, for speaking disrespectfully about Shemayah and Avtalyon (see Tosfos Yom-Tov).

(b)When he died without having released his Niduy - they stoned his coffin (which will be explained shortly).

(c)R. Yehudah considered it inconceivable that a Niduy would have been placed on Akavya - because, when they brought the Korban Pesach in three groups, the gates did not close on anyone who could match him ...

(d)... in Chochmah or Yir'as Chet (see Tosfos Yom-Tov).

24)

(a)According to R. Yehudah, it was Elazar ben Chanoch on whom the Niduy was placed. What he did to deserve it?

(b)What does the Tana mean when he says that, after his death, they stoned his coffin?

(c)Why did they used to do that to anybody who died without having released his Niduy?

24)

(a)According to R. Yehudah, it was Elazar ben Chanoch on whom the Niduy was placed - for questioning the concept of Tum'as Yadayim (whilst the body remains Tahor).

(b)When the Tana says that, after his death, they stoned his coffin, he means - that they placed a stone on it ...

(c)... which they would do to anybody who died without having released his Niduy - merely as a sign that he had been in Niduy and that the Chachamim had kept their distance from him (see also Meleches Shlomoh).

Note: I am not clear what this means, and would suggest that whether it was literal or symbolical, it was meant to attain the final degradation (Kaparah) that would serve to release the Niduy.

Mishnah 7
Hear the Mishnah

25)

(a)What did Akavya ben Mahalalel tell his son before he (Akavya) died?

(b)What did he reply when his son asked him why himself he did not recant?

(c)Why did he use the word 'Mutav' (it is preferable) rather than 'Chayav'?

(d)Like whom is the Halachah in the four disputes between Akavya ben Mahalalel and the Chachamim?

25)

(a)Before he died, Akavya ben Mahalalel told his son - to recant on the four above issues.

(b)When his son asked him why he himself did not recant - he replied that he, like his contemporaries, had heard their respective rulings from many (see Tosfos Yom-Tov), justifying each of them to abide by what they had heard; whereas since his son had heard it from an individual, it was preferable for him to retract ...

(c)... 'Mutav' (it is preferable), rather than 'Chayav' - because although he only heard it from him, it was nevertheless the opinion of many (see Tosfos Yom-Tov).

(d)The Halachah in the four disputes between Akavya ben Mahalalel and the Chachamim - is like the Chachamim.

26)

(a)What did Akavya's son mean when he requested of his father 'P'kod Alai la'Chaverecha'?

(b)What did he ask him when he replied in the negative?

(c)What did Akavya reply to that?

26)

(a)When Akavya's son requested of his father 'P'kod Alai la'Chaverecha', he meant - that he should ask his contemporaries to accept him

(b)When he replied in the negative, he asked him - whether he had discovered a fault (and that was why he was refused his request).

(c)... to which Akavya replied - that it should be one's own deeds that cause one to be accepted or rejected (and not somebody else's requests).

Hadran Alach 'Rebbi Yehudah'

D.A.F. TALMUD RESOURCES
FOR MASECHES EDUYOS