Mishnah 1
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1)

(a)What does Shamai mean when he says 'Kol ha'Nashim Dayan Sha'atan'?

(b)On what grounds would we even think of declaring her Tamei retroactively?

(c)Why is Shamai so lenient?

1)

(a)When Shamai says 'Kol ha'Nashim Dayan Sha'atan', he means - that when a woman sees blood, she starts counting her period of Tum'ah from the time that she sees, and not retroactively.

(b)We would otherwise have thought that we would declare her Tamei retroactively - on the suspicion that the blood entered her womb earlier (in which case she would be Tamei from that moment on), but the walls of her womb held it back.

(c)The reason that Shamai is so lenient is - due to the fear that if we were to declare the woman Tamei retroactively, her husband, afraid that perhaps she is Tamei, decline to be intimate with her Bitul Piryah ve'Rivyah - stopping people from having children).

2)

(a)What does Hillel say?

(b)Why is Hillel not concerned about Bitul Piryah ve'Rivyah (stopping people from having children)?

2)

(a)According to Hillel - the woman is Tamei retroactively from the last time that she examined herself and discovered that she was Tahor.

(b)Hillel is not concerned about Bitul Piryah ve'Rivyah - because they only decreed with regard to Taharos, but not with regard to her husband.

3)

(a)On what grounds do the Chachamim disagree with both Shamai and Hillel?

(b)What do they say?

(c)Like whom is the Halachah?

3)

(a)The Chachamim disagree with both Shamai and Hillel - because on the one hand, Shamai is too lenient, whilst on the other, Hillel is too strict (seeing as it is unlikely that the walls of her womb will have held back the blood for so long).

(b)So they add to Beis-Hillel's ruling ('mi'Pekidah li'Pekidah') 'Me'es le'Es' - meaning that if her previous examination took place more than twenty-four hours earlier, she is only Tamei 'Me'es Le'es (twenty-four hours retroactively ...

(c)... and that is the Halachah.

4)

(a)The Mishnah now discusses a woman who has a Veses and one who is Meshamesh using Idim. What is a 'Veses'?

(b)How does she obtain it?

(c)What ruling does the Tana issue with regard to her?

(d)On what principle is this ruling based?

4)

(a)The Mishnah now discusses a woman who has a Veses - (a fixed monthly period during which she normally has a sighting) and one who is Meshamesh using Idim.

(b)She obtains it - by seeing at that time on three consecutive months.

(c)The Tana rules - 'Dayah Sha'atah' (she is Tamei from the moment she examines herself and discovers blood) and not earlier ...

(d)... due to the principle 'Orach bi'Zemano Ba' (a period comes in its time [and not prematurely]).

5)

(a)The Tana obligates a woman to use Idim during Tashmish. What are 'Idim'?

(b)Why is the word in the plural?

5)

(a)The Tana obligates a woman to use 'Idim' - (cloths) during Tashmish to check for blood ...

(b)... one before Tashmish, the other, after Tashmish.

6)

(a)What second (lenient) ruling does the Tana issue with regard to Idim? To which of the two cloths does this apply?

(b)Why might we otherwise have thought that the second cloth will not do away with 'mi'Pekidah li'Pekidah'?

(c)Why can we not rely on the first cloth?

6)

(a)The second (lenient) ruling issued by the Tana with regard to Idim is - that the second one has the Din of mi'Pekidah li'Pekidah (i.e. should she subsequently see blood within twenty-four hours, she is only Tamei retroactively from the time of that second examination).

(b)Why might otherwise have thought that the second cloth will not do away with 'mi'Pekidah li'Pekidah' - because of the possibility that she saw a tiny drop of blood the size of a mustard-seed, but it was covered over by the Man's Zera.

(c)We cannot rely on the first cloth however - because we suspect that, in her impatience to be with her husband, she did not examine herself properly.

Mishnah 2
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7)

(a)Shamai requires a dough measuring one Kav in order to be subject to Chalah. What does Hillel say?

(b)Here too, the Chachamim issue a compromise ruling. What do they say?

(c)What do we learn from the Pasuk in Korach (in connection with Chalah) "Reishis Arisoseichem"

(d)In the desert, this was the equivalent of seven Lugin, and one and a fifth egg volumes. What did this become after they added a sixth by the Yerushalmi weights?

7)

(a)Shamai requires a dough measuring one Kav in order to be subject to Chalah. Hillel requires - two Kabin (see Tosfos Yom-Tov).

(b)Here too, the Chachamim issue a compromise ruling - one and a half Kabin.

(c)We learn from the Pasuk in Korach (in connection with Chalah) "Reishis Arisoseichem" - that the Shi'ur Chalah is the equivalent of the measure of Manna that fell for each individual in the desert (a tenth of an Eifah, otherwise known as an 'Omer').

(d)This was the equivalent of seven Lugin, and one and a fifth egg volumes. After they added a sixth by the Yerushalmi weights however, it became - six large-size Lugin.

8)

(a)What is the Mishnah referring to when it says "u'mi'Shigdilu ha'Midos, Amru Chameishes Reva'im Chayavin be'Chalah'?

(b)What does 'Chameishes Reva'im Chayavin' mean?

(c)R. Yossi is slightly more lenient than the Chachamim. What does he say?

(d)What is his reason?

(e)Like whom is the Halachah?

8)

(a)When the Mishnah says "u'mi'Shigdilu ha'Midos, Amru Chameishes Reva'im Chayavin be'Chalah', it is referring to - the measures of Tzipori, which they enlarged by a sixth once more, bringing the Shi'ur Chalah to five Lugin ...

(b)... one and a quarter Kabin.

(c)R. Yossi is slightly more lenient than the Chachamim. According to him - the above Shi'ur is Patur from Chalah slightly more is Chayav.

(d)This is - because the eggs in the desert were five per-cent larger than our eggs.

(e)The Halachah - is like the Chachamim.

Mishnah 3
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9)

(a)According to Hillel, a Hin-full of drawn water invalidates a Mikvah (see Tosfos Yom-Tov). How many Lugin are there in a Hin?

(b)On what condition does the Mikvah become Pasul?

(c)How much drawn water must fall into a Kasher Mikvah, to render it Pasul?

9)

(a)According to Hillel, a Hin-full of drawn water - (twelve Lugin) invalidates a Mikvah (see Tosfos Yom-Tov).

(b)The Mikvah becomes Pasul - only on condition that it it is not yet Kasher (i.e. it does not contain forty Sa'ah of natural water).

(c)No amount of drawn water that falls into a Kasher Mikvah will render it Pasul.

10)

(a)Why ought Hillel to have rather said 'three Kabin' than 'a Hin' (see Tiferes Yisrael)?

(b)So why did he use the term 'Hin'?

(c)According to the Rambam, Hillel actually said 'In' (see Tosfos Yom-Tov), for the same reason as we just gave in the previous explanation. What were the names of his Rebbes?

(d)Why did they call it 'In'?

10)

(a)Hillel ought rather to have said 'three Kabin' than 'a Hin' (Tiferes Yisrael) - because 'Hin' is a Torah term not generally used by the Chachamim.

(b)And the reason that he used the term 'Hin' is - because his Rebbes used it (and a person citing his Rebbe should use the terminology that he heard from him [see Tosfos Yom-Tov]).

(c)According to the Rambam, Hillel actually said 'In' (see Tosfos Yom-Tov), for the same reason as we just gave in the previous explanation. The names of his Rebbes were - Shemayah and Avtalyon ...

(d)... who called it 'In' - simply because they were Geirei Tzedek (righteous converts) who were unable to pronounce the letters 'Alef', 'Hey', 'Ches' and 'Ayin'.

11)

(a)How many Kabin of drawn water does Shamai require to invalidate a Mikvah?

(b)This time, the Chachamim are the most stringent of all. What Shi'ur of drawn water do they give that will render a Mikvah Pasul?

(c)The source of their ruling is two weavers. In whose name did they cite this ruling?

11)

(a)Shamai requires - nine Kabin (three Hin [see Tosfos Yom-Tov]) of drawn water to invalidate a Mikvah.

(b)This time, the Chachamim are the most stringent of all. The Shi'ur of drawn water given by them that will render a Mikvah Pasul is - three Lugin (three-quarters of a Kav [see Tosfos Yom-Tov]).

(c)The source of their ruling is two weavers citing - Shemayah and Avtalyon.

12)

(a)Whereabouts in Yerushalayim did the two weavers live?

(b)Why does the Tana see fit to mention the profession and the location of residence of the two men?

12)

(a)The two weavers lived in Yerushalayim - in the area of Sha'ar ha'Ashpos ('the Dung-Gate').

(b)The Tana sees fit to mention the profession and the location of residence of the two men to teach us - that the Chachamim accepted their evidence to rule against the greatest sages, in spite of their lowly profession (see Tosfos Yom-Tov) and place of residence ('there is no less auspicious gate in Yerushalayim than the 'Sha'ar ha'Ashpos').

Mishnah 4
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13)

(a)What problem does the Mishnah have with the previous Mishnahs, where Shamai and Hillel are overridden by the Chachamim?

(b)How does the Tana explain it?

13)

(a)The problem the Mishnah has with the previous Mishnahs, where Shamai and Hillel are overridden by the Chachamim is - why the Tana bothers to cite the opinion of Shamai and Hillel at all, seeing as he specifically rules like the Chachamim.

(b)The Tana explains it - to teach us that if such great people as the opinions of Shamai and Hillel could be overturned, then nobody should ever think that his opinion is final and irreversible.

Mishnah 5
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14)

(a)And by the same token, bearing in mind the principle 'Yachid ve'Rabim, Halachah ke'Rabim', why does the Mishnah bother to cite the opinion of an individual even when he argues with a majority?

(b)On what two conditions is it permitted to do so?

(c)In this context, what is the meaning of 'Chochmah'?

(d)Why, after having taught us the Din of 'be'Chochmah u've'Minyan', does the Tana find it necessary to stress that one of them will not suffice ... (see Tosfos Yom-Tov)?

14)

(a)And by the same token, the Mishnah sometimes cites the opinion of an individual even when he argues with a majority despite the principle 'Yachid ve'Rabim, Halachah ke'Rabim' - to teach us that if for some reason, one Beis-Din accepts the individual opinion against that of the majority (see Tosfos Yom-Tov [in spite of the principle]), a subseqauent Beis-Din is not permitted to rescind their ruling ...

(b)... unless it is greater in Chochmah and in number (see Tosfos Yom-Tov [DH 'she'Ein Beis-Din 1 & 2 and DH 'u've'Minyan']).

(c)'Chochmah' in this context, means - that the Rosh Yeshivah is greater than the Rosh Yeshivah who issued the initial ruling.

(d)After having taught us the Din of 'be'Chochmah u've'Minyan', the Tana finds it necessary to stress that one of them will not suffice, says the Tosfos Yom-Tov - because we might otherwise have trasnlated 'be'Chomah u've'Minyan' as 'in wisdom or in number' (instead of 'in wisdom and in number'.

Mishnah 6
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15)

(a)What reason does R. Yehudah give to explain why Rebbi mentions the individual even where there is a majority?

15)

(a)The reason R. Yehudah gives to explain why Rebbi mentions the individual even where there is a majority is - to anticipate somebody who might have heard the opinion of the individual and wishes to act on it, to inform him that the majority disagrees with it (see Tosfos Yom-Tov).

Mishnah 7
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16)

(a)The Mishnah now discusses a Rova of bones of a dead person. What does 'Rova' mean in this context?

(b)What is the status of less than a Rova of bones with regards to Tum'as Meis?

(c)If Beis Shamai say that even a Rova of bones of two or three Meisim is Metamei be'Ohel, What do Beis Hillel say?

16)

(a)The Mishnah now discusses a Rova - (of a Kav [the equivalent of twenty-four egg-volumes]) of bones of a dead person.

(b)Less than a Rova of bones - is Metamei be'Maga and be'Masa (by touching or carrying), but not be'Ohel (by being under the same roof or by being an Ohel over it).

(c)Beis Shamai say that even a Rova of bones of two or three corpses is Metamei be'Ohel; Beis Hillel - require the bones to be from one Meis.

17)

(a)The Rova ha'Kav also requires one of two conditions before it is Metamei be'Ohel (see Tosfos Yom-Tov). Which conditions?

(b)'Rov Binyan' comprises three large bones (see end of the sixth Perek). What does 'Rov Minyan' comprise?

(c)Shamai is the most stringent of all. What does he say?

(d)Like whom is the Halachah?

17)

(a)The Rova ha'Kav also requires one of two conditions before it is Metamei be'Ohel (see Tosfos Yom-Tov) - either Rov Binyan (the majority of the volume) or Rov Minyan (the majority of bones [see Tiferes Yisrael]).

(b)'Rov Binyan' comprises three large bones (see end of the sixth Perek); 'Rov Minyan' - hundred and twenty-five bones.

(c)Shamai is the most stringent of all. According to him - even the Rova ha'Kav comes from one bone, it is also metamei be'Ohel.

(d)The Halachah - is like Beis Hillel.

Mishnah 8
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18)

(a)The Mishnah now discusses Karshinei Terumah. What are 'Karshinei Terumah'?

(b)Seeing as they are mainly used to feed camels, why to they need to be Ma'asered?

(c)Why, before soaking them or rubbing them on one's flesh (see Tiferes Yisrael), is one obligated to wash one's hands?

(d)According to Beis Shamai, one may even feed them to one's animals be'Tum'ah (without washing one's hands). What do Beis Hillel say?

18)

(a)The Mishnah now discusses 'Karshinei Terumah' - horse-beans that are basically used as camel-food ...

(b)... which nevertheless need to be Ma'asered - since they are sometimes eaten by humans ...

(c)Before soaking them or rubbing them on one's flesh (see Tiferes Yisrael) - one is obligated to wash one's hands - which will otherwise render them Tamei (i.e. Sheniyim mi'de'Rabbanan).

(d)According to Beis Shamai, one may even feed them to one's animals be'Tum'ah (without washing one's hands), but Beis Hillel - forbid it.

19)

(a)Here too, Shamai is the most stringent of all. What does he say one should be careful to do before feeding the animals?

(b)R. Akiva on the other hand, is the most lenient of all. What does he say?

(c)Like whom is the Halachah?

19)

(a)Here too, Shamai is the most stringent of all. In his opinion - one should even be careful to wash one's hands before feeding the animals.

(b)R. Akiva on the other hand, is the most lenient of all. He holds - that since basically Karshinin are animal food, washing one's hands is not required at any stage.

(c)The Halachah - is like Beis Hillel.

Mishnah 9
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20)

(a)The Mishnah now discusses someone who wishes to change a Sela's-worth of P'rutos of Ma'aser-Sheini money into Ma'os. What is the basic difference between P'rutos and Ma'os?

(b)Why would he want to make such a change?

(c)Beis Shamai permit him to change the entire amount Beis Hillel restrict him to a Shekel's-worth. What fraction of the total is a Shekel's-worth?

(d)What is Beis Hillel's reason?

20)

(a)The Mishnah now discusses someone who wishes to change a Sela's-worth of (copper) P'rutos of Ma'aser-Sheini money into (silver) Ma'os ...

(b)... to lighten the load.

(c)Beis Shamai permit him to change the entire amount. On what grounds do Beis Hillel restrict him to a Shekel's-worth - which is half a Sela.

(d)The reason for this is - because, when he arrives in Yeruhalayim, he will immediately require some of the P'rutos for food. Consequently, if everyone runs straight to the banker to change his Ma'os into P'rutos, the exchange rate of P'rutos will go up, causing Hekdesh (which owns all the Ma'aser-Sheini coins) a loss.

21)

(a)What does Rebbi Meir say about changing half a Dinar of Ma'aser-Sheini money plus half a Dinar's worth of Ma'aser-Sheini fruit for a Dinar (see Tosfos Chadashim)?

(b)On what condition do the Chachamim, who disagree with him in principle, concede that it is forbidden?

21)

(a)Rebbi Meir forbids changing half a Dinar of Ma'aser-Sheini money plus half a Dinar's worth of Ma'aser-Sheini fruit for a Dinar (see Tosfos Chadashim).

(b)The Chachamim, who disagree with him in principle, concede that it is forbidden - if it is a matter changing a whole Dinar of money plus a Dinar of fruit for a Shekel (see Tiferes Yisrael).

Mishnah 10
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22)

(a)Beis Shamai permit changing an entire Sela of Ma'aser-Sheini money in Yerushalayim into P'ruTosfos What do Beis Hillel say?

(b)What is Beis Hillel's initial reason?

(c)So why can he not change them back into silver coins before leaving?

(d)The Tana'im that follow require that one leave the bulk of Dinrim in each Sela unchanged. If here are a hundred and ninety-two P'rutos in a Dinar, how many Dinrim are there in a Sela?

22)

(a)Beis Shamai permit changing an entire Sela of Ma'aser-Sheini money in Yerushalayim into P'rutos; Beis Hillel permit only a Shekel's worth ...

(b)... in case he does not manage to spend it all, and the P'rutos that he leaves in Yerushalayim for his next visit will become moldy.

(c)Whereas if he changes them back into silver coins before leaving - the additional bank-charges will cause a loss to Hekdesh.

(d)The Tana'im that follow require that one leave the bulk of Dinrim in each Sela unchanged. There are a hundred and ninety-two P'rutos in a Dinar - and four Dinrim in a Sela.

23)

(a)'Ha'Danim Lifnei Chachamim' (a specific trio of Tana'im) permit changing only one Dinar at a time. The trio includes Shimon ben Azai and Shimon ben Zoma. Who is the third member of the trio?

(b)R. Akiva is even more stringent. What does he say.

(c)R. Tarfon is more stringent still. He says four Asp'rei Kesef. What are 'Asp'rei'? How many of them are there in a Dinar?

(d)What does he then mean? What fraction of a Sela is this the equivalent of?

23)

(a)'Ha'Danim Lifnei Chachamim' (a specific trio of Tana'im) permit changing only one Dinar at a time. The trio incorporates Shimon ben Azai, Shimon ben Zoma - and Chanan ha'Mitzri.

(b)R. Akiva is even more stringent. He permits changing - on a quarter of the fourth Dinar into copper P'ruTosfos

(c)R. Tarfon is more stringent still. He says four 'Asp'rei' Kesef - of which there are five in a Dinar.

(d)And what he then means is - that one may change only one Aspar into P'rutos, the equivalent of one twentieth of a Sela.

24)

(a)Shamai is the most stringent of all. What does he say?

(b)Why is he so strict?

(c)Like whom is the Halachah?

24)

(a)Shamai is the most stringent of all. He forbids outright changing silver coins into copper coins. All one can do is - to leave one's silver coins in a 'Makolet' and allow the storekeeper to deduct from them according to one's purchases, for the duration of one's stay in Yerushalayim.

(b)The reason for this is - in case the owner forgets and thinks that they are Chulin coins.

(c)The Halachah - is like Beis Hillel.

Mishnah 11
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25)

(a)Beis Shamai declare Tamei a Kalah's chair which is missing its Chipuyim. Some translate 'Chipuyim' as arm-rests. How does the Rambam translate it?

(b)On what grounds do Beis Hillel declare it Tahor?

(c)Then why do Beis Shamai declare it Tamei?

(d)In fact, Beis Shamai rule that even the Malbein shel Kisei is Tamei (how much more so the chair without the Chipuyim). What is 'Malbein shel Kisei'?

25)

(a)Beis Shamai declare Tamei a Kalah's chair which is missing its Chipuyim. Some translate 'Chipuyim' as arm-rests. The Rambam translates it as - ornamented boards of wood or slabs of stone that are attached to the chair.

(b)Beis Hillel declare it Tahor - because, since it is no longer fit for a Kalah, it is as if it was broken (see Tiferes Yisrael).

(c)Beis Shamai declare it Tamei - because it is still fit to sit on.

(d)In fact, Beis Shamai rule that even the 'Malbein shel Kisei' on its own - (the sitting area that is shaped like a square brick) is Tamei (how much more so the chair without the Chipuyim).

26)

(a)Beis Shamai declare Tamei a chair that one attached to a kneading-trough. What do they mean by Tamei?

(b)What is the Chidush? Why might we have thought that it is not?

(c)Why is the kneading-trough not subject to Tum'as Medras, even when one uses it to sit in?

26)

(a)Beis Shamai declare Tamei a chair that one attached to a kneading-trough. By 'Tamei', they mean Tamei Medras.

(b)We might otherwise have thought that it is not - since it is Bateil to the kneading-trough, which is not subject to Tum'as Medras, even when one uses it to sit in.

(c)... because should the owner wish to knead in it he will say 'Get up and let us do our work'.

27)

(a)On what grounds do Beis Hillel declare it Tahor from Tum'as Medras?

(b)On what condition do Beis Shamai concede that the chair is Tahor?

(c)And what does Shamai say?

27)

(a)Beis Hillel declare it Tahor from Tum'as Medras - because the chair is Bateil to the kneading-trough.

(b)Beis Samai concede that the chair is Tahor - if it was originally carved out together with the kneading-trough.

(c)According to Shamai - even that is subject to Tum'as Medras.

Mishnah 12
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28)

(a)The Mishnah now discusses all the cases where Beis Hillel retracted and conceded that Beis Shamai was right (See Tosfos Yom-Tov). Beis Shamai ruled that a woman who arrives from overseas with the news that her husband has died is believed and is permitted to get married on the basis of her own testimony. What did Beis Hillel originally say?

(b)What are the additional connotations of 'min ha'Katzir' said by the Chachamim who initiated this ruling?

(c)Beis Shamai retorted that it did not make a difference whether the woman came from the wheat harvest or whether she came from overseas. What did they add to that to stress their point?

(d)How did Beis Shamai explain the fact that Chazal they specifically used that expression?

28)

(a)The Mishnah now discusses all the cases where Beis Hillel retracted and conceded that Beis Shamai was right (See Tosfos Yom-Tov). Beis Shamai ruled that a woman who arrives from overseas with the news that her husband has died is believed and is permitted to get married on the basis of her own testimony. Originally - Beis Hillel confined this ruling to a case where the woman came from the fields where her husband had been harvesting the crops (which is what the Chachamim who initiated this ruling said,) ...

(b)... which also implies that she did not come from overseas.

(c)Beis Shamai retorted that it did not make a difference whether the woman came from the wheat harvest - from the olive-harvest or from overseas.

(d)Beis Shamai explained - that Chazal used that expression only because that was the most common case.

29)

(a)What did Beis Shamai retort to Beis Hillel, who originally ruled that the woman may get married, but does not receive her Kesubah?

(b)In answer to that, Beis Hillel cited a precedent in this very case where she is not believed with regard to money matters. Which precedent?

(c)How do they resolve Shamai's previous argument?

(d)Beis Shamai finally proved their ruling from Seifer Kesubah. What does it say in 'Seifer Kesubah' that caused Beis Hillel to retract?

29)

(a)When Beis Hillel originally ruled that the woman may get married, but does not receive her Kesubah, Beis Shamai retorted - that if she is believed with regard to the Isur Ervah (which is subject to Kareis) how can she not be believed with regard to money-maters, which does not possess this stringency.

(b)In answer to that, Beis Hillel cited a precedent in this very case where she is not believed with regard to money matters - in that she is not believed with regard to her husband's children now claiming their father's inheritance ...

(c)... and the only reason that the Chachamim believe the woman is because of 'Igunah' (that she should be obligated to remain single for the rest of her life).

(d)Beis Shamai finally proved their ruling from 'Seifer Kesubah' - where the husband writes that the moment she remarried, she becomes entitled to claim her Kesubah (causing Beis Hillel to retract).

Mishnah 13
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30)

(a)Beis Hillel and Beis Shamai originally argued over an Eved who is half-Eved and half-free. This is possible in one of two ways; one, where one of his two masters set him free. What is the other?

(b)On what grounds did Beis Shamai disagree with Beis Hillel original ruling that forced him to serve his master every second day?

(c)Which Pasuk in Yeshayah did they quote to prove their point?

(d)So what did they advocate one should do?

30)

(a)Beis Hillel and Beis Shamai originally argued over an Eved who is half-Eved and half-free. This is possible in one of two ways; one, where one of his two masters set him free, the other - where the owner is paid half his value to set him free.

(b)Beis Shamai disagreed with Beis Hillel original ruling that forced him to serve his master every second day - in that this Takanah serves he master well; but how about the Eved himself, who is not permitted to marry either a Shifchah or a woman who is free? And the world is meant to be inhabited ...

(c)... as the Pasuk in Yeshayah writes "Lo Tohu Bera'ah, Lasheves Yetzarah!"

(d)They therefore advocated - that one forces the master sets him free (by writing him a Sh'tar Chischrur), and the Eved writes his master a document obligating himself to pay him half his own value.

Mishnah 14
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31)

(a)What do Beis Hillel mean when they say that a K'li Cheres (an earthenware vessel) saves everything?

(b)How do we learn this from the Pasuk in Chukas "ve'Chol K'li Pasu'ach asher Ein Tzamid Pasil Alav Tamei Hu"?

(c)How do we know that this Pasuk is referring specifically to earthenware vessels?

31)

(a)When Beis Hillel say that a K'li Cheres (an earthenware vessel) saves everything, they mean - that whatever is inside a K'li Cheres with a sealed lid remains Tahor in an Ohel ha'Meis (see also Meleches Shlomoh).

(b)We learn this from the Pasuk in Chukas "ve'Chol K'li Pasu'ach asher Ein Tzamid Pasil Alav Tamei Hu" - by inference (that if its lid is sealed, then it and everything inside it is Tahor.

(c)This Pasuk is referring specifically to earthenware vessels - because the word "Pasu'ach" implies a K'li which becomes Tamei via its entrance (i.e. its inside, and not via contact with its outside).

32)

(a)According to Beis Shamai, a K'li Cheres saves only three things, two of which are food and drink. What is the third?

(b)What reason did Beis Shamai give to explain why it does not save anything else from becoming Tamei (mi'de'Rabbanan)?

(c)On what principle is this stringency based?

32)

(a)According to Beis Shamai, a K'li Cheres saves only three things, two of which are food and drink; the third is - K'lei Cheres.

(b)The reason Beis Shamai give to explain why it does not save anything else from becoming Tamei (mi'de'Rabbanan) is - because all Keilim belonging to an Am-ha'Aretz are considered Tamei (since they do not conversant with the Dinim of Tum'ah and Taharah, but think that they are).

(c)This stringency is based on the principle - that whatever is itself Tamei does not prevent Tum'ah from passing through it to render Tamei whatever is on the other side.

33)

(a)What did Beis Shamai reply when Beis Hillel asked them why it then saves food, drink and K'lei Cheres?

(b)And what did they mean when they said that 'when you save a K'li, you save it for yourself too'?

(c)Why were the Chachamim worried that the Chaver may borrow the Am-ha'Aretz's Tamei vessels?

(d)Then why were they not worried that he may also borrow his ...

1. ... food and drink?

2. ... K'lei Cheres?

33)

(a)When Beis Hillel asked them why it then saves food, drink and K'lei Cheres - Beis Shamai replied that these three items are only saved for the Am-ha'Aretz himself, so there is nothing to worry about.

(b)And when they said that 'when you save a K'li, you save it for yourself too', they meant - that it was necessary to decree Tum'ah on it to prevent a Chaver from borrowing it.

(c)The Chachamim were worried that the Chaver may borrow the Am-ha'Aretz's Tamei vessels - because he will automatically Tovel them first (but will not think of sprinkling them with the ashes of the Parah Adumah in case of Tum'as Meis).

(d)They were not worried that he may borrow his ...

1. ... food and drink - because food and drink cannot be Toveled in a Mikvah.

2. ... K'lei Cheres - which cannot be Toveled either.

34)

(a)Why did the Chachamim not simply decree that the K'lei Cheres of an Am ha'Aretz do not save anything that is inside them?

(b)Like whom is the Halachah?

34)

(a)The Chachamim declined to simply decree that the K'lei Cheres of an Am ha'Aretz (exclusively) do not save anything that is inside them - knowing that the Amei-ha'Aretz would never accept such a decree (see Tosfos Yom-Tov).

(b)The Halachah - is like Beis Shamai (seeing as Beis Hillel conceded to them).

Hadran Alach 'Shamai Omer'

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