Is the child considered born when
1)when its temples emerge,
2)when its forehead emerges
or 3) when the crown of the head becomes visible.
Also, if the baby is breech, is it the majority of the body?
Barry Epstein, Dallas, USA
The Mishnah (28a) states that if the baby (Lo Aleinu) is in pieces when most of it comes out, or if the entire head comes out before most of it comes out (as per the opinion of Rebbi Yochanan on 29b), it is considered born. If the baby comes out normally, the Mishnah says that when the forehead emerges, the baby is considered born (see Rambam Isurei Bi'ah 10:6 who says "most" of the forehead, and Kesef Mishnah ibid. who tries to reconcile this with the simple explanation of our Mishnah and Gemara). The Badei ha'Shulchan (Y.D. 194:81) quotes the Sidrei Taharah as saying that if the baby is breech, we indeed go by the majority of the body.
All the best,