More Discussions for this daf
1. Different types of Tum'ah joining to make a Rov who are Tamei 2. Shlish 3. Tzitz
4. Derech Rechokah 5. תוס' ד"ה ואתה מדחהו

hgschild asked:

Not following general concept of how and what it works?

where is there/can you make a summary of how and why and where the Tzitz works or refer me?

hgschild, ny usa

The Kollel replies:

Here is what we wrote in the Background to the Daf:

Background to Menachos 46:14

14) [line 26] SHEHA'TZITZ MERATZEH AL HA'TAMEI - since the Tzitz validates (lit. causes the Korban he offers to find favor, fulfilling his obligation) things that are Tamei (RITZUY TZITZ)

(a) Tum'ah renders Korbanos unfit for being offered. Therefore, if the blood of a Korban becomes Tamei before it is cast on the Mizbe'ach (Zerikas ha'Dam), it becomes prohibited to do Zerikas ha'Dam with this blood. Similarly, Rebbi Yehoshua rules that if all of the meat and Chelev of a Korban becomes Tamei before Zerikas ha'Dam, it becomes prohibited to do Zerikas ha'Dam (Pesachim 77b). In addition, if the Eimurim (the parts of a Korban that are to be offered on the Mizbe'ach) become Teme'im even after Zerikas ha'Dam, it becomes prohibited to offer them afterwards. This Halachah also disqualifies the loaves of bread that accompany certain Korbanos that become Teme'im.

(b) However, all of these laws apply only l'Chatchilah. B'Di'eved, if the Kohen did Zerikas ha'Dam b'Tum'ah and the Kohen Gadol was wearing the Tzitz at the time, the Tzitz validates the Kohen's Avodah. The Korban may be eaten and the owner has fulfilled his obligation. This Halachah is learned from the verse, "... l'Ratzon Lahem Lifnei HaSh-m" (Shemos 28:38). (If, however, the meat or loaves became Teme'im, the Tzitz does not render them fit to be eaten .)

(c) Korbenos Tzibur (public sacrifices) do not require the Tzitz to render them acceptable. If they become Teme'im through one of the above-mentioned Tum'os, they may be offered l'Chatchilah. Also, if all of the Kohanim are Teme'im, they may offer Korbanos l'Chatchilah. These Korbanos, however, even though they were offered b'Tum'ah, may not be eaten (with the exception of the Korban Pesach, which is a Korban Tzibur that may be offered b'Tum'ah and also eaten b'Tum'ah).

(d) The Tzitz was the thin gold plate on which was written "Kodesh la'Hash-m," worn on the forehead of the Kohen Gadol (Shemos 28:36-38; see Charts to Shabbos 63b).

Background to Menachos 95:22,


(a) The Torah permits offering Korbenos Tzibur (communal sacrifices) b'Tum'ah. Therefore, Korbenos Temidim and the Musafim of Shabbos, Yom Tov and all other Korbanos and Menachos that are brought for the Tzibur, such as Minchas ha'Omer and the Shtei ha'Lechem, may be offered even if there is a need to offer them b'Tum'ah (as will be explained below). The Korban Pesach is also called a Korban Tzibur, even though it is offered by individuals, since everyone brings it together at one time in one assemblage ("Kenufya"). The Gemara cites several sources in the Torah for this Halachah (Pesachim 66b, 77a, see also Insights to Pesachim 79a).

(b) The Tana'im argue whether Tum'ah is Hutrah b'Tzibur or Dechuyah b'Tzibur (Pesachim 77a, Yoma 7b).

1. The Gemara in Yoma explains that according to all opinions, if certain Kohanim in the Mikdash are Temei'im and others are Tehorim, the Tehorim do the Avodah. However, if all of the Kohanim of the Beis Av (the group of Kohanim whose day it is to do the Avodah) are Temei'im, there is a dispute as to whether the Korbanos are offered b'Tum'ah. One opinion holds that the Torah entirely cancelled the prohibitions against Tum'ah with regard to Korbenos Tzibur ("Hutrah"); therefore the Kohanim who are Tamei may perform the Avodah. Others rule that Kohanim from other Batei Avos who are Tehorim should be sought to do the Avodah, since only with reluctance did the Torah permit offering Korbenos Tzibur b'Tum'ah ("Dechuyah"). The prohibitions of Tum'ah are only pushed aside in the event of great necessity.

2. Another practical difference that arises from the argument whether Tum'ah is Hutrah or Dechuyah is that according to the opinion that Tum'ah is Dechuyah b'Tzibur, a Korban Tzibur in which the blood, flesh or Chelev became Tamei may only be offered in conjunction with the conciliatory effects of the Tzitz (see Background to Menachos 46:14). If the Tzitz is not Meratzeh for the Korban, the Korban may not be offered b'Tum'ah (Pesachim 77a).

(c) If either the holy utensils needed to offer the Korban, or the flesh or blood of the Korban became Tamei, the Korban may be offered b'Tum'ah. The Korban Pesach is brought b'Tum'ah if the Kohanim, the Klei Shares, or the majority of the Jewish people are Tamei Mes on the 14th day of Nisan. When most of the assembly is Tamei, even the people who are Tehorim may bring their Korban Pesach b'Tum'ah (Pesachim 79a).

Yaakov Montrose adds:

Additionally, the Gemara in Zevachim (88b) says that the Tzitz atones for brazeness. The Maharsha there explains that although we know that the Tzitz atones for the Korbanos brought in impurity, this is derived from the Pasuk, "v'Nasa Aharon Es Avon ha'Kadashim." This does not explain why that same Pasuk states that the Tzitz must be worn on the Kohen Gadol's "Meitzach" -- "forehead." The Maharsha therefore suggests that this is why the Gemara in Zevachim understands that it also atones for "Azus Panim," generally defined as brazeness. The Gemara there infers that this primarily refers to promiscuity (which stems from brazeness, see Kli Yakar in Shemos 28:36), as is implied by the Gemara's quote of a similar usage of the word "Meitzach" in the Pasuk "u'Meitzach Ishah Zonah" -- "and the forehead of a promiscuous woman."

Rabeinu Bachye in Shemos (28:36) explains that the method of atonement of the Tzitz in general can be understood from the similar word "Meitzitz Min ha'Charakim." This means Hash-m is"looking from amongst the cracks," to view Bnei Yisrael with mercy.

All the best,

Yaakov Montrose