At the top of Pesachim 80b, the gemara brings the case of one-third Zavim, Tahorim, and Tamei Masim. Rashi (DH B'rishon lo avdi) says that the Tamei Masim don't bring on Pesach Sheni because if the Zavim are now tahor, then "rov tzibur tzrichin lo" -- apparently this means that the majority of Klal Yisrael is now eligible to bring Pesach Sheni, which is not allowed.
So my question is: How exactly do we figure "rov tzibur" in this case? Do we count only those people who did not bring Pesach Rishon, or do we count all of Klal Yisrael?
The difference, of course, would be, that if we count all of Klal Yisrael, then as long as no more than 74.9 percent (i.e. three-fourths, of the original two-thirds) of those who were tame (either Meis or Zav) are now tahor, then those tahor people could now bring, since they do not constitute "rov tzibur" -- because we add in the shlish that was tahor, along with 25.1 percent of those who were tame, for a full count of 51.1 percent Jews who will not bring on Pesach Sheni.
(Further, it shouldn't matter whether those people who brought on Pesach Rishon are now tame or tahor, since either way they are counted amongst those who do not need to bring on Pesach Sheni.)
Is this logic correct? Have you seen anyone discuss this? I appreciate any insight you could give, as I've been struggling with this. Thank you and tizke l'mitzvos.
Shraga Simmons, Kiryat Sefer, Israel
The Rambam (Hilchos Korban Pesach 7:6) says that we figure out "most of the Tzibur" being Tamei or Tahor by counting the amount of people who come to Shecht the Korban Pesach by the first Korban Pesach (not including people who are in a Chaburah but not bringing the Korban) immediately before the first group would enter the Azarah. If most of that group is Tahor, Bnei Yisrael are considered Tahor. This is clearly the opinion of the Rambam regarding our Gemara as well, as he puts our Gemara together with this Halachah.
The Chazon Ish in Zevachim 15a, however, has quite a bit of difficulty figuring out the Rambam's rationale for this source of measuring. He indeed asks that there is seemingly no reason not to count the people in the Chaburah.
All the best,