י"ב בתשרי תשס"ג לכבוד "דף היומי" סנהדרין י"ב ע"ב מעשה בחזקיה המלך שעיבר את השנה מפני הטומאה. השאלה שלנו: עבור השנה הוא תפקידו של הסנהדרין ולא של המלך, וקשה לחשוב שחזקי' המלך ישב בבית דין או שהוא דן יחידי, ? ואם הוא היה רק חלק של הבית דין למה צריכים לבקש רחמים רק עליו ולא על כל הדיינים?
תודה מראש על תשובתכם בכל הכבוד שלמה גולדהבר בשם לומדי דף היומי ברחוב גשר החיים י-ם מגיד השיעור הרב נפתלי פרוש שליט"א
Here is what we wrote in the past to someone who asked a similar question. Best wishes and Chag Same'ach!
Kollel Iyun Hadaf
Pesachim 056a: Chizkiyahu's misdeeds
Eli Turkel asked:
(a) On 56a the gemara in Pesachim brings a tosefta with 6 things that Chizkiyahu did. The chachamin agreed with 3 and disagreed on three.
Who are these chachamin? in the days of Chizkiyahu or Tanaim? If it was in the days of Chizkiyahu how does the Gemara know this? It doesn't bring any pesukim that someone disagreed with the king. If it is the tanaim that disagree with Chizkiyahu isn't this unusual for them to disagree with a righteous king without any proof from the Tanach?
(b) One of the 6 is that he declared an Adar II when it was already Nisan. But declaring an Adar II can only be done by the Sanhedrin? Rambam in perek 4 of kiddush hachodesh goes through the details of what is necessary to declare a leapyear. In particular in needs to be done even bidieved with the permission of the head (nasi) of the Sanhedrin. Lechathila he describes all sorts of procedures that require discussion within the Sanhedrin.
The Kollel replies:
(a) Good question. Judging from the wording used by Chazal, it is certainly possible that these Chachamim did not live in the time of Chizkiyahu. In the discussion of Chizkiyah, they use the terms "Hodu Lo" or "Lo Hodu Lo," and not the terminology that the Mishnah [in Pesachim there] uses ("Michu b'Yado" and "Lo Michu b'Yado") or that the Beraisa uses ("b'Ratzon Chachamim" and "she'Lo b'Ratzon Chachamim"). It could be that the Chachamim in his own time were either subordinate to him, or accepted what he did without protest or expressing disapproval since, as you mention, he was the king.
However, from the context it seems that it is referring to Chachamim from his times, that did not agree with him. Regarding disagreeing with a righteous king, we know that if a person's teacher is erring in a Devar Halachah, "Ein Chachmah v'Ein Tevunah v'Ein Etzah l'Neged Hash-m" -- nothing stands in the way of the honor of Hash-m, and the student must rebuke his Rebbi (Berachos 19b).
(b) The kings of the dynasty of David were the heads of the Sanhedrin (Sanhedrin 19a, from the verse "Dino l'Boker Mishpat"), and thus Chizkiyahu, in his capacity as leader of the Sanhedrin, decided upon the matter and a majority of the rest of the Sanhedrin followed him. [He took responsibility for the deed since he felt the members of Sanhedrin that agreed with him did so against their better judgment in deference of the king.] Some of the Chachamim, though, did not approve of his ruling, as we discussed above.