how could the gemara (Daf 6a) have a hava amina to say that by dayanim it's only for
peace so the scheniah doesn't come, if the Gemara says on 8a that the only
interest hashem has in this world is the 4 amos of Halacha. If that's all Hash-m cares about what's the Hava Amina that the scheniah wouldn't come?
By the way, what does that statement mean on 8a? Is that all Hash-m really
cares about? Could we say that this goes hand with the statement that ever
since the churban there is a metal wall between us and Hash-m?
Thank you for bringing back this wonderful service and helping be marbitz
torah in a unbelivable way.
A big YAsher Koach!!!
Yehoshua Rabinowitz, Los Angeles, U.S.A.
In order not to confuse issues we must define the terms. There are a few things that upon them it is written that the Shechinah is present. Other than being Osek b'Torah which is mentioned here, it is also said with regard to Ish v'Ishah (Shalom Beineihem, Shechinah Beinieihem, Sotah 17a), the hands of the Kohanim by Birkas Kohanim, and the Dayanim who are involved in Ibur Shanah (instituting a leap year) among others.
The idea of the presence of the Shechinah is obviously not that Hash-m is there, for Malei Kol ha'Aretz Kevodo, Hash-m is everywhere. What these Divrei Chazal mean is that Hash-m assists these actions in a clear manner. That is to say, it is as if Hash-m is clearly helping along these acts and lending them His assistance k'v'Yachol.
This is true of a Beis Din as well. The Gemara is only asking that since they are being Osek ba'Torah why are three Dayanim necessary to have Hashra'as ha'Shechinah. To this the Gemara replies that although Beis Din utilizes the Torah, we could possibly view their act as making Shalom and not pure Esek ba'Torah.
The Gemara on 8a does not say that Hash-m only cares about the four Amos of Halacha. Rather, it says "Ein Lo ba'Olamo," which in this sense means He has no other "place" Kavyachol. It is from the destruction of the Beis ha'Mikdash which was His "place" in Olam ha'Zeh that He, k'v'Yachol, has no dwelling place but the four Amos of Halachah. This is emphasized by the usage of the term four Amos, for where are these four Amos to be found? Rather, four Amos always designates a personal place like the four Amos given to one who has left the Techum Shabbos, the four Amos for Hotza'ah on Shabbos, the four Amos for Kinyan, and the four Amos for Kevurah, etc.
"Shechinah Imo" means that the activity requires a special degree of Divine assistance, Siyata d'Shemaya, since the person is involved in spiritual pursuits that are above the natural degree of comprehension of a person.
Therefore, we might have thought that when a Beis Din adjucates a case between a Jew and his fellow Jew, all that is required is to accept the testimony of witnesses and to clarify the truth of the matter, and no special Siyata d'Shemaya is needed. The Gemara teaches that there is nonetheless a need for special Siyata d'Shemaya, because sometimes the witnesses are liars, and thus special Divine assistance is necessary in order to ascertain the truth of what happened. (In a case where the Beis Din has to judge on a particular Halachah, then indeed it is obvious that at the time that they are discussing theh Halachah that the Shechina is with them, since they are learning Torah at that time. Here, the Gemara is referring to Beis Din's acceptance of witnesses.) According to this, it is clear that this does not diminish the importance of Shalom, peace, and it is not related to the Arba Amos Shel Halachah.
It is worth noting that the "Arba Amos Shel Halachah" refers to a person who conducts himself in accordance with Halachah, and not just to one who learns Halachah. Also, you will find a lengthy and beautiful explanation for this statement of Chazal in the introduction to the RAMBAM's Perush ha'Mishnayos (page 55a after the Rosh in the Vilna Shas, Berachos). (The point of his explanation is that Chazal are teaching us that the primary purpose of Creation was for the sake of the person who involves himself, all the days of his like, in nothing except striving to understand the ways of Hash-m, and living in accordance with His ways.)