What is the point of remembering the journeys in the desert?
Ramban and Seforno: To remind us that Hashem looks after those who keep the Mitzvos, that 'A Tzadik is not forsaken and his children seek bread!', 1 as we saw in the desert, where Hashem sustained us (fed and clothed 2 us - Seforno) with great miracles because we kept His Mitzvos.
Rashbam (on Pasuk 7): To remind Yisrael that success depends, not on one's own efforts and ability, but on the Chesed of Hashem - to counter what the Torah writes later, from Pasuk 7, that, when they come to Eretz Yisrael and everything goes well, they will become vain and forget Hashem. 3
Da'as Zekenim, Hadar Zekenim, Rosh: It refers to above (7:25), not coveting gold and silver on idolatry. Trust in Hashem and remember the path, on which Hashem led you; you did not need gold and silver!
Sha'arei Teshuvah (3:17): This is a Mitzvah to remember Hashem's Chasadim; "v'Yadata Im Levavecha" (verse 5) is a Mitzvah to contemplate them.
Which tests and afflictions is the Torah referring to?
Ramban 1 : They were forced to enter the desert 2 without adequate provisions, where no food was available, and where, each day, all remaining Manna melted in the sun, and they were left yearning for the next fall the following day.
Rashbam, Seforno #1 (on Pasuk 16): They never had any food for the next day. 3
Ramban: Hashem deliberately led them via that route - and not via the surrounding towns where food was available - in order to test them as to whether they would observe His Mitzvos faithfully.
Rashbam: Since there was no bread in their baskets and they had to rely every day on the good grace of Hashem for their food.
What does the Torah mean by "Lo Senasu"?
Rashi: They should not test Hashem or harbor ill will against Him. 1
Sifsei Chachamim: Even at a time of difficulty, they should not say 'I guard the Mitzvah
What are the connotations of the words "Lada'as es asher bi'Levavcha"?
Seforno: Hashem knows what is in a person's heart, and the objective of the test was to actualize their thoughts into deeds, to let the angels know that Yisrael's level is truly superior to that of the angels. 1
What are the connotations of the words "Lada'as eis asher bi'Levavcha"?
Seforno: Hashem knows what is in a person's heart, and the objective of the test was to actualize their thoughts into deeds, to let the angels of Din know that Yisrael's level is superior to that of all the angels. 1