What are the implications of the word "Eikev Tishme'un"?
Rashi and Ramban #2: It implies 'the small Mitzvos' 1 which people tend to trample with their heels.
Ramban #3: It implies that the reward will come in the end'. 4
Ramban #4 (citing Targum Onkelos and Targum Yonasan): It means 'in exchange' - a Lashon of coming round. 5
Ramban (commenting on the fact that the Torah mentions specifically "Mishpatim" - Refer to 7:12:2:1): Such as Dinei Mamonos (which people tend not to take seriously.
Seforno: 'If you will keep the Mitzvos out of love - not in order to receive reward, then Hashem will keep the B'ris and the Chesed'.
Ramban: When you will ultimately listen to Hashem and keep the Mishpatim - as in Tehilim, 19:12 - since the Torah tends to refer to the beginning or the leader as 'Rosh' - like we find in Tehilim, 119:160 and in Bamidbar, 25:4, and the end, 'Eikev', just as the head and the heel of a person are the beginning and the end of his body. See also Ba'al ha'Turim.
Why does the Torah mention specifically the Mishpatim?
Ramban #1 and Seforno: Because it is through the Mishpatim (dispensing justice) that the Torah (the land 1 - Seforno) will be established, 2 2: Ramban #2: The Torah sees fit to warn specifically about Mishpatim (dispensing justice), because people are reluctant to carry out the death-sentence, either because they are filled with compassion 3 on a man who has been sentenced to death by stoning or burning, 4 or because they are afraid of his powerful and influential relatives avenging his death. 5
See Pasuk 13 and Mishlei, 29:4. Seforno; Though it is only in conjunction with learning the Torah she'be'al-Peh ("u'Shemartem ... ") that this is achieved.
Ramban on Pasuk 15: And compassion on the part of the judges negates the entire system of justice.
What are the connotations of "ve'Shamar Hashem ... "?
Rashi #1 (in Yeshayah, 26:2): It means that 'Hashem will make His promise materialize'
Rashbam: If you are not worthy of it materializing in one generation, then he will wait to carry it out in another generation.
What are the connotations of the 'Vav' in "Veshamar"?
Which covenant is the Pasuk referring to?