hebrew
1)

Having just stated that Hashem spoke with Yisrael directly, how can the Torah now say that Moshe was a medium?

1.

Ramban #1: The current Pasuk is referring to the number of times Moshe ascended and descended Har Sinai prior to the Aseres ha'Dibros. 1

2.

Ramban #2 (citing Ibn Ezra): The current Pasuk is referring to after Ma'amad Har Sinai, when Moshe began to act as the intermediary between Hashem and the people. 2

3.

Ramban #3: Whereas the previous Pasuk was referring to the first two of the Aseres ha'Dibros, the current Pasuk is referring to the last eight Pesukim, which Yisrael were unable to understand when they emerged from the Mouth of Hashem. 3

4.

Moshav Zekenim: The previous verse means that they heard Hashem's voice, but He did not speak to them; they heard Him speak to Moshe, like it says "Yishma ha'am b'Dabri Imach" (Shemos 19:9). 4


1

See Shemos 19:3-28.

2

The Ramban however, does not like this explanation.

3

Refer to Shemos, 20:3:1:2.

4

This is unlike Rashi, who explained that the people wanted Hashem to speak to them, and Hashem consented (refer to Shemos 19:9:4:1, 19:10:1:1.

2)

How does the word "Leimor" fit in?

1.

Rashi, Ramban #1 (citing Ibn Ezra #1), Rashbam and Seforno: It refers to Pasuk 4 "Panim be'Fanim Diber Hashem Imachem .... Leimor". 1

2.

Ramban #2 (citing Ibn Ezra #2): It refers to the phrase (in the same Pasuk 2 ) "Lehagid lachem es D'var Hashem ... Leimor".

3.

Ramban #3: - It belongs where it is; "ve'Lo Alisem ba'Har Leimor" - meaning that you did not ascend the mountain 3 because you were afraid of the fire - as you specifically stated'. 4

4.

Targum Yonasan: It follows "ve'Lo Alisem ba'Har" and translates as 'and you did not ascend the mountain when Hashem said "Anochi ... " '.


1

Seforno: As the Torah explained in Shemos 20:1 & 2.

2

Ramban (citing Ibn Ezra): Like in Shemos 13:8.

3

Refer to Shemos, 20:15:5:2.

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