To whom is this Pasuk referring?
Rashi (according to R. Yehudah): It is referring to Yisrael. 1
Rashi (according to R. Nechemyah): It is referring to the nations mentioned in Pasuk 28.
What are the connotations of "Ki mi'Gefen S'dom Gafnam umi'Shadmos Amorah" mean? To whom does it refer?
Rashi: With reference to "Amarti Af'eihem ... " in Pasuk 25 - The Pasuk continues 'For their deeds are like the deeds of S'dom and Amorah'
Ramban: With reference to 32:28:1:1 - The reason the nations are not wise is because they spend all their days thinking evil thoughts - because they stem from an evil root that produces only evil and bitter fruit which kills whoever eats from it. 1
Seforno: With reference to 32:28:1:1. And the reason that the nations fail to understand in this matter 2 is due to their vanity; because, in their tranquil lives, like the people of Sedom, they centered all their thoughts upon the pleasures of this world, in the course of which they despised all forms of Gemilus Chasadim. 3
Targum Onkelos: 'For their punishment is like the punishment of Sedom and their punishment and smiting like that of Amorah".
Targum Yonasan: For the deeds of this people are like the deeds of the people of S'dom and their evil strategies like the strategies of the people of Amorah'. 4
Ramban: And what the Pasuk means is that, as opposed to Yisrael, do Teshuvah when trouble befalls them, the nations, who lack counsel and understanding, follow their gods and deny Hakadosh-Baruch-Hu - permanently, as they were taught by their fathers; whereas Yisrael, who stem from a good root, when they are cut down, they grow afresh and produce good fruit.
See Na'ar Yonasan.
What is the literal meaning of "Shadmos"?
Rashi: 'Grain fields'.
Ibn Ezra, Bechor Shor: It also means vines.
What is the meaning of "Anaveimo Invei Rosh"?
Rashi: 'Their 1 grapes are like a bitter herb called 'Invei Rosh'.
Seforno: 'From this vine they grow poisonous grapes - evil deeds that are harmful to others. 2
Targum Onkelos: 'Their punishments are bad (harsh) like the head of a snake'.
Targum Yonasan: 'Their thoughts are evil like the heads of horned vipers'. 3
What are the implications of "Ashk'los Meroros lamo"?
Rashi (citing Targum Onkelos): A bitter drink is proper for them, commensurate with their behavior.
Seforno: "They acquire evil and false attitudes (opinions), claiming that Hashem errs and does not know what happens in the world.
Targum Yonasan: Their punishment will be bereavement and bitterness'.