What is "Yimtza'eihu be'Eretz Midbar referring to"?
Rashi #1: 'Hashem found the faithful in the desert, when they accepted His Torah, His Kingship and His yoke. 1
Rashi #2 (citing Targum Onkelos): 'He provided their needs in a desert land'. 2
Seforno: Hashem found the hearts of His choosen portion faithful in ht desert. 3
Targum Yonasan: 'He came across them encamped in a desert land'.
Da'as Zekenim: Yisrael found a great Metzi'ah in the Midbar
What is the meaning of "ve'Sohu Yeleil Yeshimon"? What is it referring to?
Rashi: 'The howling of the serpents and the ostriches in a desolate land' - Even there they proved faithful, They followed Moshe into the desert and did not query the choice of location'. 1
Targum Onkelos: 'And in a place where there is thirst, because there is no water'.
Targum Yonasan: 'A place where demons and spirits howl.
Da'as Zekenim: Before the Torah was given, the world was dark and desolate (like "Sohu va'Vohu"
What did Hashem surround them with?
Rashi #1: He surrounded them with (the seven - Targum Yonasan) clouds of glory 1 (and with four camps in all four directions and underneath the Mountain, which He held above their heads [at the time of Matan Torah].
Rashi #2 (citing Targum Onkelos): He encamped them around His Shechinah' - the Ohel Mo'ed in the middle and the four camps on all four sides.
Rashbam: He surrounded them with angels who protected them. 2 .
Seforno: It refers to the fencing off of Har Sinai. 3
What is the meaning of "Yevonenehu"?
Rashi: He gave them to understand Torah and knowledge.
Seforno: He gave them to understand Torah and Mitzvos. 1
Da'as Zekenim, Hadar Zekenim, Rosh: This is an expression of Binyan (building) and understanding. He gave to them [understanding in] Torah, and built the Mishkan among them.
What did Hashem guard them against?
Rashi: He guarded them against snakes, fiery serpents, scorpions and the nations.
Rashbam: "Yitzrenhu" is a repetition of "Yesovevenhu" (He surrounded them)..
Seforno: 'He guarded them against the subjection of Egypt and of the nations and against the Angel of Death. 1
Da'as Zekenim: He guarded them from the nations, and Amalek.
Seforno, citing Eruvin, 54a, commenting on the Pasuk in Sh'mos (32:16) "Charus al ha'Luchos".
What is the "Ishon Eino"?
Rashi: It is the black of the eye 1 (the pupil) from which light (vision) emanates.
Rashbam, Hadar Zekenim, Rosh and Seforno: It is the eyelid. 2
Whose eye is the Pasuk referring to?
Ramban: With reference to the "Hu" in "Yitzrenhu", it means that Hashem guards them like they guard their eyes. Alternatively, it is as if the Torah had added the word "ke'Ish" - 'Hashem guards them like a man guards the pupil of his eye.'