hebrew
1)

Why does the list the sun, the moon and stars separately - after "Vayishtachu lahem"?

1.

Seforno: Because, as opposed to "Elohim Ahcerim", which refers to the spiritual angels, they are physical beings.

2)

What is the meaning of "Asher Lo Tzivisi"?

1.

Rashi and Rashbam: 'Which I did not command to worship'.

2.

Seforno: It means that Hashem did not grant them the ability 1 to act of their own freewill. 2


1

Seforno: Only to follow their prescribed assignments.

2

Seforno: As opposed to the idolaters, who believe that every town has its god who has the power to do good or bad, and does good to those who serve him.

3)

Why does the Torah find it necessary to add that Hashem did not command us to serve Avodah-Zarah? Is it not obvious?

1.

Rabeinu Bachye #1: We might otherwise have thought that it is someone who pays homage to a servant of the king will find favor with the king.

2.

Rabeinu Bachye #2: It is as if the Torah had written "asher Tzivisi be'Lo" - that Hashem commanded us with a Lo Saseh not to worship.

3.

Rabeinu Bachye #3 (according to Kabalah): Although Hashem commanded us to bring the Korban Tamid "One lamb in the morning and a second lamb in the afternoon" 1 corresponding to the Midas ha'Tom and the Midas ha'Laylah, respectively, He did not command us to worship the sin and the moon.


1

Pinchas, Bamidbar, 28:4.

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