hebrew
1)

Having said "Lo Sateh Mishpat", why does the Pasuk add "Lo Sakir Panim"?

1.

Rashi: It is forbidden to favor either of the litigants even whilst they are presenting their cases 1 - to speak softly to one of them and harshly to the other, or to allow one of them to sit whilst the other one stands. 2


1

Refer to 16:18:6:2.

2

Rashi: Because this will cause the latter to lose hope of winning his case, rendering him unable to present his arguments - resulting in the judgment being perverted.

2)

Having said "Lo Sateh Mishpat", why does the Torah need to say "ve'Lo Sikach Shochad"?

1.

Rashi #1: To teach us that a Dayan may not accept bribes even to judge correctly. 1

2.

Rashi #2: Because once a Dayan accepts a bribe from one of the litigants, it is impossible for him not to turn his heart against the other litigant.


1

See also Sifsei Chachamim.

3)

What has "Viyesalef Divrei Tzadikim" got to do with Beis-Din?

1.

Rashi, Targum Onkelos and Targum Yonasan: It means that bribery twists the righteous words (in the mouths of the Dayanim during litigation - Targum Yonasan).

4)

What does the Torah mean when it writes "Tzedek ... Tirdof"?

1.

Rashi and Ramban #1 (citing the Sifri): It means that it is incumbent upon the claimant to seek out a good Beis-Din 1 for litigation. 2

2.

Ramban #2 (citing the Ibn Ezra #1): 1. That the litigants should always tell the truth, irrespective of whether they will gain or lose by it; 2. That they should continue to do so time after time.

3.

Ramban #3 (citing the Ibn Ezra #2): the Torah writes it twice for the sake of emphasis.

4.

Seforno: When appointing the Dayanim, one should pick those who are able to judge righteously, over and above the other attributes that a Dayan ought to posses - such as good health and wealth. 3


1

Ramban (citing Sanhedrin, 32b): 'After R. Yochanan ben Zakai to Yavneh; after Rei to Beis She'arim'.

2

See Sifsei Chachamim.

3

Seforno: As Hashem told Shmuel in Shmuel 1, 16:7 "Don't look at his appearance and at his tall stature!"

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