Does Hashem not seek all the countries, as the Pasuk writes in Iyov, 38:26?
Rashi (from Rosh Hashanah, 17b): In fact, initially, He only seeks Eretz Yisrael, and once He does, He seeks all the other countries together with it. 1
Ramban: In fact, Hashem first sustains Eretz Yisrael and them all the other countries, as the Gemara states in Ta'anis, 10a. See R. Chavel's notes.
What are the connotations of "Einei Hashem Elokecha bah"?
Rashi (from Rosh Hashanah, 17b): He keeps an Eye on it (Hashgachah) to see what it needs and to issue decrees, sometimes good and sometimes not so good. 1
Seforno (commenting on the words "Doresh osah"): To scrutinize the deeds of the people, whether they deserve rain or not.
Da'as Zekenim, Rosh (from Rosh Hashanah, 17b): He judges the residents according to the majority of their deeds. If they were evil on Rosh Hashanah and a small amount of rain was decreed, and they repented, He cannot change the decree, but makes it fall at the proper time and in places where it is needed. If they were Tzadikim on Rosh Hashanah and much rain was decreed, and they soured, He cannot change the decree, but makes it fall at improper times and where it is not needed.
What are the implications of "me'Reishis Shanah ad Acharis Shanah"?
Rashi: It implies that on Rosh Hashanah, Hashem decides what will happen to Eretz Yisrael until the end of the year. 1
Refer to 11:12:2:3.
Why is "me'Reishis" written missing the Aleph?
Da'as Zekenim. Rosh (from Rosh Hashanah, 16b): Now, [the root of the word is] Rash (poor). If a year is 'poor' at the beginning (people act humbly), it will be rich at the end.
Moshav Zekenim: Now, 'Reishis' is an acronym for Rosh Chodesh, Shabbos, Yom Tov, Talmud Torah. 1 One's income is decreed on Rosh Hashanah, except for these matters; if one spends less for them [than is proper], he will get less [than was decreed]. If one spends extra for them, he will get more (the extra that he spent).
Moshav Zekenim cites Beitzah 16a. Our text there omits 'Rosh Chodesh.'