hebrew
1)

What is the meaning of "Elokei ha'Elohim va'Adonei ha'Adonim "?

1.

Rashi: It means that no master is able to save Yisrael from Hands. 1

2.

Ramban: 'He is the G-d of the angels, and the Master of the hosts of the heaven. 2

3.

Seforno: It means that He is the Eternal One who is above all the eternal beings who are devoid of Chomer 3 (physical substance) and the leader of leaders' - the celestial sphere and the power that moves it. 4

4.

Targum Onkelos and Targum Yonasan: It means that Hashem is G-d of the judges and the Master of kings. 5 .


1

Rashi does not translate "Elokei ha'Elohim".

2

Ramban: To whom He designated the power to govern the earth.

3

Seforno: And whose existence stems from His existence.

4

Seforno: Whose every action is only to attain the objectives that He has set.

5

Na'ar Yonasan: See also Rashi in Daniel, 2:47.

2)

What are the implications of the three titles "ha'Gadol, ha'Gibor ve'ha'Nora"?

1.

Rashi (in his explanation on the Sidur): 'His greatness and awesomeness were known to the Avos when they traveled from one nation to another and He did not allow them (the nations) to oppress them; and in His might, His greatness and awesomeness shielded over Yisrael.' 1

2.

Ramban: 'Greatness and might belong to Him and He is awesome in the magnificence of His strength'.

3.

Seforno: 'There is no creation that is comparable to Him; He upholds the entire universe with His existence; 2 He is Awesome in that He supervises - to reward and punish.

4.

Torah Temimah (citing Yoma 69b, commenting on this Pasuk): Yirmiyah came and declared 'The Ovdei-Kochavim are dancing in His Heichal! Where is His awesomeness?' - So he omitted 'Nora'. Then along came Daniel and declared 'Ovdei-Kochavim are subjugating His children! Where are His mighty deeds?' - So he left out 'Gibor'. Until the Anshei Kenesses ha'Gedolah announced 'On the contrary, That is His might - to keep His anger and His awesomeness in check regarding the Resha'im - because, were it not for His Fear, ow could one nation possibly survive among the Ovdei-Kochavim? 3


1

Rashi (citing Tehilim, 90:4): "His truth is shield and armor".

2

Seforno: As the Pasuk writes in Nechemyah, 9:6 - "ve'Atah Mechayeh es Kulam".

3

Yoma, 69b: So they reinstated all three titles and inserted them in the Amidah - 'ha'Keil ha'Gadol, ha'Gibor, ve'ha'Nora'.

3)

What are the implications of the phrases "Lo Yisa Panim ve'Lo Yikach Shochad"?

1.

Rashi: 'He will not show favor to those who cast off His yoke, nor can one cannot appease Him with money'. 1

2.

Ramban #1: He does not favor any of the above-mentioned gods or masters 2 - to protect their adherents, or accept bribes from any person. 3

3.

Ramban #2 (citing Targum Onkelos): 'He does not show favoritism and does not accept bribes'.

4.

Ramban #3: 'He does not favor a great man (a Tzadik) in his litigation against someone who is smaller than him, or accept bribes from a wealthy man when he litigates against a poor man.

5.

Seforno: 'He does not favor the wicked son due to his righteous father or lighten the punishment for a sin on account of a Mitzvah that one performed'. 4


1

Such as by giving Tzedakah with money that one stole - Mosad ha'Rav. Kook).

2

Refer to 12:17:1:2.

3

Ramban: Inasmuch as, if even the most pious person sins, Hashem will not accept any of his Mitzvos to atone for him, but will punish him for his sins and reward him for his Mitzvos - See R. Chavel's notes.

4

Seforno (citing Sotah, 21a): 'A Mitzvah cannot extinguish an Aveirah'. And all this teaches us that there is no escape from the full punishment for one's sins other than Teshuvah.

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