hebrew
1)

Why were the Levi'im counted only from 30 days and upwards, and not from birth?

1.

Rashi: Because the 30 days after a person is born he is a Safek Nefel (miscarriage). From the moment that he leaves that Safek, however, he falls under the category of 'Shomer Mishares ha'Kodesh". 1

2.

Rashbam: Because since they were coming to redeem the firstborns, who could only be redeemed after 30 days, 2 they too, were counted from 30 days.


1

Rashi (citing R. Yehudah b'R. Shalom): The tribe of Levi was already accustomed to being counted from birth, as the Pasuk states later (26:59, about the birth of Yocheved) "Asher Yaldah Osah l'Levi b'Mizrayim" (Levi's wife bore her to Levi in Egypt) - as they entered Egypt. And she completed the count of 70 people who came down to Egypt (See Rashi).

2

Refer to 3:15:1:1.

2)

Why does it not mention Aharon here, like it does later (3:59)?

1.

Ramban: Hashem instructed Moshe alone to count them, and it was Moshe, of his own accord, who asked Aharon to join him, since he was the Nasi of Levi. 1


1

Ramban: Just like the Nesi'im of the other tribes joined Moshe and Aharon when they counted them.

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