hebrew
1)

Why did Bil'am see fit to mention here "Er'enu ve'Lo Atah..."?

1.

Ramban: Because each of his prophesies progressed further into the future, 1 and this is the first time that he prophesied about the days of Mashi'ach.

2.

Da'as Zekenim: This is like a king who was traveling. He was thirsty, and asked where there is water; his enemy said 'it is far', to pain him. His friend said 'it is close', to donkeyuage him. Bil'am said the salvation [of Yisrael, i.e. Mashi'ach] is far; Moshe and Yeshayah said it is near


1

Ramban: His first three prophecies concerned a. That Yisrael were the portion of Hashem; b. That they will conquer Eretz Yisrael and kill the Cana'ani kings and c. That they will flourish in Eretz Yisrael and appoint a king who will defeat Agag, and the growth of the kingdom of David.

2)

Who is the star and the staff who will "kill all the princes of Mo'av

1.

Rashi: David ha'Melech. 1

2.

Ramban and Targum Yonasan: Mashi'ach. 2

3.

Hadar Zekenim: "Darach Kochav" means that the Mazal of Yisrael will strengthen.


1

See also Ba'al ha'Turim.

2

Ramban: He calls him a star, because, like a shooting-star that travels from one end of the sky to the other, so too, will Mashi'ach gather all the exiles of Yisrael from the edge of the earth; See Daniel, 7:13. See R. Chavel's footnotes on the previous Pasuk DH 'li'Yemos ha'Mashi'ach hi'.

3)

Why did he mention specifically the downfall of the princes of Mo'av?

1.

Ramban: To inform Balak that, even though his people will not fall to Yisrael now, they will in the days of Mashi'ach.

4)

To whom does "Kol B'nei Sheis" refer?

1.

Rashi: It refers to all of mankind - since all the world descended from Sheis (Adam ha'Rishon's son).

2.

Targum Yonasan: It refers to the camp of Gog, who are destined to fight with Yisrael in the days of Mashi'ach.

3.

Hadar Zekenim citing Riva: It is Bnei Amon; they descend from Ervah (the son of Lot from his daughter). 1 Shes refers to Ervah


1

I do not know why he mentions only Amon, and omits Mo'av. (PF)

2

I do not know why he mentions only Mo'av, and omits Amon. (PF)

5)

To whom does "Kol B'nei Sheis" refer?

1.

Rashi and Ramban: It refers to all of mankind - since all the world descended from Sheis (Adam ha'Rishon's son).

2.

Targum Yonasan: It refers to the camp of Gog, who are destined to fight with Yisrael in the days of Mashi'ach.

6)

What is the translation of "Karkar"?

1.

Rashi: ''They will pierce''.

2.

Targum Onkelos: 'They will rule'.

3.

Ibn Ezra (from Midrash Agadah): It is destruction, like "Mekarker Kir v'Sho'a El ha'Har" (Yeshayah 22:5).

7)

Rashi (and Targum Onkelos) write that "Kol Bnei Shes" is all of mankind. If so, Yisrael are included! Earlier, the verse implies that Yisrael will have power!

1.

Da'as Zekenim: Since earlier, the verse implies that Yisrael have power, Yisrael are excluded from the end of the verse.

2.

Refer to 24:17:4:2-5.

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