hebrew
1)

What are the connotations of the words "Tifk'du osam"?

1.

Ramban: It means 'Remember and take note of them!' 1 In other words, Moshe was not just commanded to count Yisrael but to know their numbers by accepting their half-Shekalim as an atonement, so that they should not be subject to a plague that ensues when Yisrael are counted S'tam. 2

2.

Targum Onkelos and Targum Yonasan: It means simply, 'You shall count them!'


1

Ramban: It is a Lashon of 'Hashgachah' (supervision), and is similar to the Pasuk in Bereishis 21:1 "va'Hashem Pakad es Sarah'.

2

Ramban: Similar to David ha'Melech, about whom the Pasuk writes in Shmuel 2, 24:9, "Mispar Mifkad ha'Am". See Ramban, who takes for granted that David ha'Melech too, counted the people via half-Shekalim, and goes into detail to explain David's sin that caused the ensuing plague.

2)

Why does the Torah insert "Kol Yotzei Tzava" here?

1.

Rashi: To teach us that a man under the age of 20 cannot be conscripted. 1

2.

Ramban, Moshav Zekenim: It refers (not to the army, but) to being called to attend public gatherings, 2 from which the youth are generally precluded. 3


1

Ramban, Moshav Zekenim: Perhaps this is because it is only when a man turns 20 that he is strong enough to serve in the army, as the Mishnah states in Avos 'ben Esrim Lirdof'.

2

Ramban: Like we find later in 8:24, 25, and in Shemos 38:8.

3

Ramban: And the Torah adds "l'Tziv'osam, because each tribe comprised large hosts.

3)

Why is Aharon mentioned here, but not in the census at the beginning of Ki Sisa?

1.

Ba'al ha'Turim: Because the census in Ki Sisa was instituted as a result of the Eigel, 1 for which Aharon was considered responsible, therefore it was inappropriate for him to have a hand in the counting.


1

To ascertain how many remained alive after the plague (Rashi on Pasuk 1).

4)

Why were they counted from the age of 20?

1.

Refer to 1:3:2:1 and the note there.

2.

Moshav Zekenim: One who is 20 has many Mitzvos

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