How does one translate "v'Zacharti Es Brisi Yakov"?
Ramban #1 (citing Ibn Ezra): There is a word missing and the Pasuk reads 'v'ZachartiEs Brisi B'ris Yakov'. 1
Ramban #2 (according to Kabalah): The Pasuk means to say that Hashem will remember Yakov, Yitzchak and Avraham, 2 who are His partners in the covenant.
Targum Yonasan: I will remember with mercy My covenant with Yakov in Beis Kel.
Why is Yakov spelled with a 'Vav'? (Almost everywhere, it has no Vav!)
Rashi: In five places the Torah spells Yakov with a 'Vav', and Eliyahu missing a 'Vav'. Yakov took a 'Vav' from Eliyahu as a security, to ensure that he will come to give his (Yakov's) children the news of the impending redemption.
Why does the Pasuk list the Avos backwards?
Rashi: As if to say that Yakov, the youngest of the Avos, is worthy to bring about the Ge'ulah; and in case he is not, then together with Yitzchak, they will achieve it; and if even they are not worthy, then together with Avraham, they will certainly succeed in bringing it about. 1
Hadar Zekenim: This is the way of people who reminisce - 'I remember Ploni, and his father and his grandfather.'
Ibn Ezra, Moshav Zekenim: Yakov is listed first, for all of his years were in the Bris. 2
See also Ba'al ha'Turim. Gur Aryeh - Moshe did not know that Yakov is worthy by himself, therefore he mentioned the Avos in order, i.e. he asked [Hashem to pardon Chet ha'Egel] in the Avos' combined merit.
Bnei Reshef (on Ibn Ezra): Even though also all of Yitzchak's years were in the Bris (at the end of Parshas Lech Lecha), it is proper to begin only with the first or the last. (Tosfos Shabbos 20b DH ba'Meh implies like this. - PF)
What is the significance of "veha'Aretz Ezkor"?
Rashi (in Sefer ha'Pardes): Hashem will remember the land, not to leave it in the hands of the impure Nochrim, and to deliver it into the hands of those who are righteous, since the land itself cannot tolerate anyone who is impure such as the seven nations. It is pained when people sin, and vomits them out 1 with sulfur and salt. 2
Ramban #1 (citing Ibn Ezra) 3 : Hashem will also remember the land that paid the Shemitah years and was bereft of the people.
Rashi (Ibid.): Hence the Pasuk writes "... lest the land vomit you out" (See 18:28, 3).
See Ba'al ha'Turim on Pasuk 43.
On Pasuk 43, on the words "veha'Aretz Te'azev Mehem".
Ramban: This is hinted in the Midrash, which compares it to a man who had three daughters and a maidservant who brought them up. Whenever he inquired after the wellbeing of his daughters he also inquired after the wellbeing of the maidservant.
To which period does this Pasuk refer?
Seforno: It refers to the period of building the second Beis-Hamikdash. 1
Why does it say "Af" regarding Avraham and Yitzchak, but not regarding Yakov?
Hadar Zekenim and Moshav Zekenim (from Midrash Agadah): It is because all his children were Tzadikim. R. Chaim Paltiel - therefore, Hashem did not want to mention Af (anger) regarding him.
R. Bechayei - Af alludes to Midas ha'Din. Avraham and Yitzchak equally [accepted Midas ha'Din and nullified their desires] at the Akeidah.
Kli Yakar: Avraham and Yitzchak were earlier, and Yisrael already 'ate' from their merits. It is a Chidush that enough remains of their merit to redeem Yisrael.
Why is remembrance not mentioned regarding Yitzchak?
Moshav Zekenim: It is as if his ashes are remembered and guarded on the Mizbe'ach. (He is constantly remembered - PF.)
What do we learn from "Es"?
Moshav Zekenim: This includes the merit of the matriarchs. 1
It says "Es" once with each of the Avos. Why does it not say Es a second time with Yakov, to include Rachel and Leah? Perhaps there is no reason to include one more than the other, so we learn both from one word, like in Bava Kama 3a. (PF)
QUESTIONS ON RASHI
Rashi writes that in five places Yakov is spelled with a 'Vav', and Eliyahu lacks a 'Vav'; this was a security, to ensure that he come to herald the redemption. Why was this done five times?
Mizrachi: He took five corresponding to the five Chumashim.
Gur Aryeh: One who gives a security, he shakes his hand; there are five fingers on the hand. Vav resembles a finger, and its Gematriya is six; in all the security was 30, like the number of bones in the hand (Ohalos 1:8). Eliyahu was created just to redeem Yisrael, therefore his name is not complete until he does so.
Rashi writes that the Avos are listed backwards because even Yakov's merit is enough; and if not, then together with Yitzchak..., Yakov was the choice of the Avos! And after saying that his merit suffices, why does Rashi say 'and if not...'?
Nachalas Yakov: Rashi (Shemos 32:13) wrote that if Yisrael deserved death by burning, Hashem should remember Avraham, who was cast into a furnace; if they deserved the sword... Yitzchak... and if they deserved exile... Ya'akov was exiled. Here, he says that if they deserve only exile, Yakov's merit suffices. If they deserve the sword, Yitzchak's merit suffices...