1)

When does the Yovel begin?

1.

Yerushalmi, Rosh Hashanah, 1:2: From the comparison to Sh'mitah ("Vesafarta l'cha Sheva Shabsos Shanim") we learn that Yovel begins in Tishri, just like Sh'mitah.

2)

Having stated "Sheva Shabsos Shanim", why does the Torah add "Sheva Shanim Sheva Pe'amim"?

1.

Rashi: Because we would otherwise have thought that the seven Shabbos years comprise seven consecutive years.

2.

Kol Eliyahu and Divrei Eliyahu: Had it said only Sheva Shabsos Shanim, it would suffice to count (verbally) just Sh'mitah years. "Tesha ve'Arba'im" teaches us that one must count each year 1 and "Sheva Shanim Sheva Pe'amim" teaches us that it is not enough to say 'this is year eight, or nine


1

Refer also ro 25:8:4:4.

2

And we learn via a Gezeirah Shavah that the same applies to Sefiras ha'Omer - Each day, one must say the total number of days, and also the weeks that have passed and how many days into the current week (Refer to 23:16:152:1 and the note there).The Torah requires this, and so is our custom, even though the Tur brings also other opinions.

3)

Why does the Torah see fit to insert the latter half of the Pasuk ("Vehayu Y'mei Sheva Shabsos Shanim ... "), which seems obvious?

1.

Rashi #1: To teach us that, even if, for some reason, Yisrael did not keep the Sh'mitos, Yovel must take place after forty-nine years.

2.

Rashi #2: To simply mention that the total number of years in the Sh'mitos is forty-nine. 1

3.

Seforno: It is a command to divide the forty-nine years of the Yovel-cycle (not into years consisting of twelve lunar-months, but) by arranging leap-years when necessary, so that they correspond to the forty-nine sun-years. 2

4.

Sifra: The Torah inserts "Vehayu l'cha Sheva Shabsos Shanim" to teach us the obligation to verbally count the years of each Sh'mitah and "Teshah ve'Arba'im Shanah", 3 the obligation to verbally count the years of the Yovel. 4


1

See Sifsei Chachamim. See also Torah Temimah (citing the the Sifra).

2

Seforno: In the same way as one inevitably does regarding the seven-year cycle of the Sh'mitah, which is closely connected to the plowing and planting seasons. See also Oznayim la'Torah DH 'Y'mei Sheva ... '.

3

Refer also to 25:8:1:2.

4

Much in the same way as we count the Omer. See Torah Temimah, note 40.

4)

Who is commanded to count the years?

1.

Rashi (on Pasuk 9) and Da'as Zekenim: It is a Mitzvah incumbent upon all individuals. 1

2.

Hadar Zekenim: It is a Mitzvah incumbent upon Beis Din. 2


1

Refer to 25:9:3:1*.

2

Torah Temimah and Oznayim la'Torah: Because had the Torah wanted to obligate every indivudual to count (as it does with regard to Sefiras ha'Omer) it ought to have written 'u'Sefartem lachem' (in the plural), like it does there. Yovel only applies when most Jews live in Eretz Yisrael; some say that the Shevatim must also be settled in their proper locations (Refer to 25:10:4:2). That explains why we do not count Yovel nowadays. (PF). Refer also to 25:8:151:1*.

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