What are the connotations of "be'Mispar Shanim Achar ha'Yovel Tarbeh Miknaso ... "?
Rashi #1 and Ramban #1: With refernce to Ona'ah, it means that, when selling a field, one should know how many years there until the Yovel and sell and purchase accordingly. 1 If there are many years, the purchaser pays more and if there are few years, he pays less. 2
If, as the Chachamim have said (in Bava Metzi'a, 56a), Karka is not subject to Ona'ah, how will we explain the current Pesukim?
Ramban #1: Pesukim 14 - 16 are speaking (not about Ona'ah, 1 but) about the Din of Yovel
Why does the Torah reckon the years "after the Yovel" and not the Yovel year itself?
Seforno: Because it is unwise to purchase a field in the Yovel itself, when the seller may return and retrieve it before the purchaser has had a chance to derive any benefit from it.
What are the connotations of "be'Mispar Sh'nei Tevu'os Yimkor lach"?
Rashi #1: It means that the seller sells, not the field per se, but the number of harvests (excluding the years of Sh'mitah). 1
Rashi #2 (citing Erchin, 29b): It means that the seller is not permitted to redeem his field from the purchaser before two years - even if the field yields three years' produce during that time.
Or ha'Chayim: It teaches us four Dinim;. a. The sale must be for at least two years of harvest - but not of drought, of withering 2 or of Sh'mitah. b. The Torah mentions buying and selling to warn both the purchaser and the seller. 3 c The purchaser is permitted to retain it for two years, even if he obtains three harvests within that time. d. In the event that the purchaser obtains only one harvest before Yovel, he is not obligated to return it until a year harvest after the Yovel. 4
Erchin, 29b: It implies that one may sell a field close tt the Yovel, 5
Gitin, 48a & b: Bearing in mind that the Pasuk is speaking about a time when the Yovel applies, and that one cannot therefore sell the land, it implies that "Kinyan Peiros La'av ke'Kinyan ha'Guf'
Rashi: And that consequently, if the seller charges more than its value for the few years until Yovel, or the purchaser pays less than its value for the many years until Yovel, he has transgressed the La'av of Ona'ah.
Seforno: As is the Din of someone who rents a field.
Or ha'Chayim: Even if the buyer consents to sell it back, he may not. The Torah wants to discourage people from selling land (refer to 25:25:1:1).
The Rambam rules like all four Dinim.
Erchin (Ibid.): And from "L'fi Rov ha'Shanim" and L'fi Me'ot ha'Shanim" we learn that one is permitted to sell a field a long time after or a short time before, the Yovel. See Torah Temimah, note 104.
See Torah Temimah, note 94.
See Torah Temimah, notes 96 & 97.
See Torah Temimah, note 102.
See answer 8.
See Torah Temimah, note 103.