1)

Why does the Torah interrupt with the Dinim of Ona'ah between 'Ein Charish ve'Ein Katzir; in the previous Pesukim and "Vetzivisi es Birchasi" in Pasuk 21?

1.

Oznayin la'Torah: Because as long as the Torah has not informed us how and when fields revert to their owners, Pasuk 13 "bi'Shenas ha'Yovel ha'Zos Tashuvu Ish el Achuzaso" is meaningless,

2)

Why does the Torah add the (otherwise superfluos) word "ve'Chi Simk'ru Mimkar ... "?

1.

Seforno (citing Bava Metzi'a, 60b: To prohibit 'all forms of Ona'ah

3)

Why does the Torah add the word "la'Amisecha" both in connection with selling and in connection with purchasing?

1.

Rashi: This is the way the Torah speaks.

2.

Rashi (citing the Sifra): To teach us that wherever possible, one should sell to and purchase from, one's fellow-Jew.

3.

Bechoros 13a & b: To teach us that only a Yisrael acquires Metaltelin via Meshichah, 1 but not a Nochri


1

Refer to 25:14:2:3.

2

See also Torah Temimah, note 82, who elaborates.

4)

Why does the Torah insert the word "O Kanoh mi'Yad Amisecha"?

1.

Ramban #1 (citing Bava Metzi'a, 56b) and Targum Yonasan: To confine the Isur Ona'ah to Metaltelin


1

Refer to 25:15:1:2*. See also Ramban DH 've'Ulai'.

2

See Torah Temimah, note 87.

5)

What are the implications of "Mimkar la'Amisecha" and Kanoh mi'Yad Amisecha"?

1.

Rashi #1: It means simply that, whn selling to or purchasing from one's fellow Yisrael, one is forbidden to cheat him.

2.

Rashi #2 and Sefono: It implies that wheher one is selling or purchasing, it should be to or from a fellow Yisrael.

3.

Bechoros, 13a: It implies a Yisrael


1

Interesringly, Chazal did not say that one is permitted to cheat a Nochri but that one is not obligated to return the Ona'ah. See Torah Temimah, note 83.

6)

Why does the Torah add "O Kanoh ... "?

1.

Rashi and Seforno: Refer to 25:14:2.1:2.

7)

How much is considered Ona'ah?

1.

Bava Metzi'a, 49b: Four silver Dinrim in twenty-four


1

See Torah Temimah, note 90.

8)

Why does the Torah write twice the La'av of Ona'ah (here and in Pasuk 17)?

1.

Rashi, Ramban, Seforno and Targum Yonasan: Ona'ah in this Pasuk refers to Ona'as Mamon (overcharging or underpaying), whereas in Pasuk 17 it refers to Ona'as Devarim (hurting verbally). 1

2.

Seforno (17): Pasuk 17 refers to Ona'as Mamon and Ona'as Devarim.

3.

Moshav Zekenim: The latter Pasuk includes causing pain to a poor man who requests Tzedakah. Do not say to him 'You are healthy


1

Refer to 25:17:2:1.

2

Therefore the Pasuk writes in Koheles 5:13

9)

What are the ramifications of "Al Tonu"?

1.

Rashi, Ramban #1 and Targum Yonasan: Refer to 25:14:3:1.

2.

Ramban #2: It is a warning that the two parties should clarify to one another how many years there are until the Yovel, and to stipulate that, in the Yovel, the field must go back to the seller.

3.

Seforno: "ve'Chi Simk'ru Mimkar ... " refers to the seller cheating - such as by removing the chaff from the top of the pile but not from the bottom; 1 whereas "O Kanoh ... "refers to the purchaser underpaying - when the seller does not know the market price. 2


1

Seforno: Bava Metzi'a, 60a.

2

Seforno: Even assuming that the seller had the article in his possession long enough to have shown it to an expert or a relative to find out its price. See Torah Temima, note 91 as to why this is not obvious.

10)

What is considered Ona'ah? What happens if somebody transgresses?

1.

Ramban: For Metaltelim, if the difference from the true value is less than a sixth, the sale remains intact and the transgressor is not obligated to compensate the other party. 1 If it is a sixth 2 , the sale is valid, but the transgressor must return it. If it is more than a sixth, the sale is invalid.


1

Ramban: Such a small amount is pardoned. Nevertheless, the transgressor has contravened the La'av of Lo Sonu.

2

Riva, Moshav Zekenim (17, citing R. Yehudah ha'Chasid): A hint to this is the final letters of "[v'Lo Sonu] Ish Es Achiv v'Yaresa" (Pasuk 17), which spell 'Shtus' (a sixth, in Arameic. Perhaps they hold like Seforno, that Pasuk 17 applies also to Ona'as Mamon.

11)

What is the reason for the sequence of all the current Parshiyos?

1.

Rashi (26:1): First the Torah warns about Sh'mitah (and Yovel); in the event that someone has a lust for money and is suspect on Sh'mitah, he will be forced to sell his Metaltelin (movable goods - Pasuk 14), then, his fields (Pasuk 15), then his house (Pasuk 29); If he continues to transgress, he will be forced to borrow on interest (Pasuk 35); and finally, to sell himself, first to a Yisrael (Pasuk 39), and then, to a Nochri (Pasuk 47). 1


1

Rashi: Each punishment is worse than the one that precedes it.

12)

Why does the Torah switch from "ve'Chi Simk'ru Mimkar" (plural) to "O Kanoh" (singular)?

1.

Moshav Zekenim: We read these like 'Mem (forty) Kor' and 'O Kanoh', to forbid Ona'ah both for a giant field (three million square Amos) and a tiny field (the size of one stick).

2.

Ramban and Moshav Zekenim (on Pasuk 15): The Torah initially taught the plural "Simk'ru" to include land and Metaltelim, and switched to the singular "Kanoh" to hint that Metaltelim are different (sometimes there is compensation, or the sale is Batel).

3.

Seforno Moshav Zekenim and Ibn Ezra: The plural "Simk'ru" teaches us to sell [land] in front of witnesses. "Kano" warns a purchaser not to underpay. 1


1

Refer also to 25:14:5:3 and note 2.

13)

What are the implications of "Lo Sonu Ish "es Achiv"?

1.

Moshav Zekenim #1: Do not say that Ona'ah applies only to a man; "Es Achiv" comes to include women.

2.

Moshav Zekenim #2: Do not say that Ona'ah applies only between merchants; "Es Achiv" includes even if one or both parties are commoners.

3.

Moshav Zekenim #3: It precludes a Katan who overcharged or underpaid an adult.

4.

Moshav Zekenim #4: "Es Achiv" precludes Nochrim

5.

Bechoros 13b: "Es Achiv", 've'Lo Hekdesh'


1

See Torah Temimah, note 93.

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