What is this Pasuk coming to teach us?
Rashi: It teaches us that it is a Mitzvah to arrange the Yamim-Tovim 1 in such a way that all of Yisrael are able to celebrate Yom-Tov - in fulfillment of the Mitzvah of Aliyas Regel - by announcing a leap-year 2 in the event that the Galuyos have left Bavel and will arrive late in Yerushalayim. 3
Why is the Parshah of Yamim-Tovim, which applies equally to all of Yisrael, in Sefer Toras Kohanim?
Ramban: Because, although Yamim Tovim per se apply to all of Yisrael, they are days of Korbanos (Musafim), which apply to the Kohanim in particular. 1
Ramban: See for example, Pasuk 8 and Pasuk 37.
Why are the Musafim not mentioned in this Parshah?
Ramban, Moshav Zekenim: Because Hashem did not intend that Yisrael bring the Musafim in the desert. 1
What are the connotations of "asher Tikr'u osam Mikra'ei Kodesh"?
Rashi: Refer to 32:35:1:1.
Ramban #1 and Seforno: The Yamim-Tovim are called "Mikra'ei Kodesh" because it is a Mitzvah to gather in the Beis ha'Keneses to publicly sanctify the day with Tefilah and Hallel, and dressed in one's finery, and to make it a day of festivity. 1
Ramban #2 (citing Targum #1 Onkelos) and Targum Yonasan #1: 'An occurrence of holiness' - On whichever day they occur, sanctify them.
Ramban #3 (citing the Sifri and Targum Onkelos #2): Make them special with regard to food and drink and fine clothes. 2
Rashbam, Targum Onkelos and Targum Yonasan: Whenever the term 'K'ri'ah' appears in connection with 'Mo'adim', it refers to the fixing of times. 3
What is the connection between this Parshah and the previous ones?
Seforno: After discussing the Korbanos and those who bring them, the purpose of which was to rest the Shechinah in Yisrael, 1 the Torah presents the laws of the Mo'ados. The purpose is to desist from mundane activities, on some (Shabbos and Yom Kipur) completely,, and on some (the other Yamim-Tovim) partially, 2 to enable us to study Torah and to indulge in holy pursuits. By doing so, one causes the Shechinah to rest in Yisrael.
What are the connotations of "Eileh heim Mo'adai"?
Seforno 1 : These are My festivals - when you declare them Mikra'ei Kodesh; but if your celebrations are confined to eating, drinking and merrymaking, then your Yamim-Tovim are your festivals, and I detest them. 2
Why is Mo'adai written full, with a Vov?
Moshav Zekenim #1: This alludes to six months 1 for which Sheluchim go out (to inform people which day was fixed to be Rosh Chodesh - Rosh Hashanah 18a).
Moshav Zekenim #2: There are six Mo'adim - Pesach, Shavu'os, Rosh Hashanah, Yom Kipur, Sukos and Shemini Atzeres. 2
Surely this is an Asmachta, for three are due to enactments mid'Rabanan, i.e. Chanukah, Purim and Tish'ah b'Av! The question itself is not clear, Mo'ed is usually written full. In this Parshah, it is Chaser only once, at the end (verse 44)! (PF)
Shemini Atzeres is considered a separate Regel in six ways (Sukah 48a); the last day of Pesach is not a new Regel. (PF)
Why is Osam written Chaser (without a Vov)?
Moshav Zekenim: We read this like Atem. The angels ask Hashem when is Rosh Hashanah, and he tells them to ask Beis Din below. The Mo'adim depend on you!