hebrew
1)

What is the difference between "Seivah" and "Zakein"?

1.

Rashi: In this context, 1 "Zakein" means someone who has acquired wisdom 2 - to preclude having to rise before a Rasha (or a Bur - an ignoramus) 3 or to honor him.

2.

Ramban #1 (citing Toras Kohanim and Targum Onkelos): "Zakein" is synonymous with 'Chacham', 4 an indication that one only needs to honor and rise before an elderly Talmid-Chacham.

3.

Ramban #2 (citing Kidushin, 32b) and Targum Yonasan: One is obligated to rise and honor an old man - even if he is a Bur, and a Chacham, even if he is a child. 5

4.

Seforno: The former is an obligation to honor Kedoshei Elyon (holy individuals) - who are generally elders, 6 whereas the latter refers to the sages. 7


1

In general terms, a person who has turned sixty is a Zakein, and he becomes a Zakein at the age of seventy (See Pirkei Avos, 5:21).

2

See Sifsei Chachamim.

3

Ramban: See also Sifsei Chachamim.

4

Ramban: The acronym of Chacham is 'Zeh she'Kanah Chochmahan).' (See Ramban). See also Beha'aloschsa, Bamidbar 11:16.

5

The Ramban suggests that maybe this is also the opinion of Targum Onkelos - only he incorporates a young Talmid-Chacham in the word "Seivah", whereas "Zakein comes to include an elderly person irrespective of his knowledge.

6

Seforno: as the Pasuk indicates in Mishlei, 16:31.

7

See Kidushin, 32.

2)

What does honoring a Zakein entail?

1.

Rashi: It entails not sitting in his place, not speaking on his behalf and not contradicting his words.

3)

Why does the Pasuk add "Veyareisa me'Elokecha"?

1.

Rashi: To teach us that it is forbidden to avoid rising, by closing one's eyes before he arrives within one's four Amos. 1 Therefore the Torah reminds us that Hashem is aware of his thoughts, even if nobody else is. 2


1

See Sifsei Chachamim.

2

See also Ibn Ezra.

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