hebrew
1)

Why does the Torah repeat 'Chukim and Mishpatim'?

1.

Rashi #1: To incorporate details of the Mitzvos concerned that the Pasuk omitted.

2.

Rashi #2: In order to include the Asiyah (the Mitzvos Asei) and the Shemirah (the Mitzvos Lo Sa'aseh of both the Chukim and the Mishpatim. 1

3.

Ramban: Refer to 18:5:2:1.


1

See Sifsei Chachamim.

2)

Why does the Torah switch the order from 'Mishpatim and Chukim' (in the previous Pasuk) to 'Chukim and Mishpatim'?

1.

Ramban: Refer to 18:4:1:2*.

3)

Seeing as the Torah is referring to a La'av ("Lo Sikr'vu"), how can the Torah use the word "asher Ya'aseh osam ... "?

1.

Torah Temimah (citing Makos, 23b): This teaches us that someone who desists from sinning will receive a reward as if he would have performed a Mitzvah.

4)

What are the connotations of the word "ha'Adam"?

1.

Torah Temimah (citing Bava Kama, 38a): To teach us that even a Nochri 1 who studies Torah 2 is subject to reward, no less than a Kohen Gadol who enters the Kodesh Kodashim on Yom Kipur. 3


1

Who is included in "ha'Adam" (as opposed to "Adam" which refers to Yisrael exclusively (See Yevamos, 61a). See also Or ha'Chayaim.

2

That pertains to the seven Mitzvos b'nei No'ach (See Torah Temimah).

3

Ibid.

5)

What are the connotations of the words "va'Chai bahem"?

1.

Rashi, Ramban #2 (citing the Toras Kohanim), Targum Onkelos and Targum Yonasan: This refers to life in the World to Come. 1

2.

Ramban #1 (citing Yoma, 85b): To teach us that (with certain exceptions), human life overrides the Mizvos. 2

3.

Ramban #3: Refer to 18:4:1:2*.

4.

Ramban #4: There are four levels of life that a person earns for observing the Mitzvos, depending on the depth of one's observance 3 : 1. Long life in this world, including wealth, property and honor - for those who perform Mitzvos in order to receive reward; 2. Life which spares one the punishments of the Resha'im and their Seouls will live in goodness - for those who perform Mitzvos out of fear of punishments - in order to receive a reward in the world to come: 3. A good life in this world and a complete life in the world to come - for those who perform Mitzvos out of love of Hashem; 4. Body and Soul will live forever- for those who totally discard all interest in matters concerning this world, whose thoughts are focused exclusively on serving Hashem with body and Soul. 4

5.

Rashbam: To extrapolate that whoever does not not abide by these Dinim will be Chayav Kareis.


1

Bearing in mind that in this world, everybody is destined to die (Rashi).

2

"va'Chai bahem", 've'Lo she'Yamus bahem' (Ramban), and, by the same token, Piku'ach Nefesh overrides Shabbos (Torah Temimah, citing Yoma, 85b).

3

And this explains why the Torah uses different expressions of life in different places - such as "Lema'an Ya'arichu Yamecha" (Shemos 20:12), "Lema'an Tichyeh" (Parshas Shoftim, Devarim 16:20) and "Veha'arachta Yamim" (Devarim 22:7), to hint at the various levels of life (Ramban).

4

Like Chanoch and Eliyahu ha'Navi, who went alive into Gan Eden.

6)

And why does the Pasuk repeat "Ani Hashem"?

1.

Rashi: 'I am Hashem' who is reliable to reward those who observe the Mitzvos. 1


1

Refer to 18:1:1:2*.

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