Why does the Torah discuss the Tum'ah of humans after that of the animals?
Rashi: Just as the creation of the animals preceded that of man, so too does the Torah give precedence to the laws of the animals.
Why does the Torah insert the words "Ishah Ki Sazri'a"?
Rashi: To teach us that, even if the baby is born squashed 1 - and resembles Zera (semen), she is nevertheless Tamei Leidah.
Moshav Zekenim citing Nidah 40a: "Ki Sazri'a v'Yaldah" teaches that this Parshah applies only if she gave birth from the place of Hazra'ah; it excludes birth through Caesarian section.
Seeing as the Torah specifies that a Yoledes is Tamei for seven days, why does it see fit to add "ki'Yemei Nidas D'vosah Titma"?
Rashi: To teach us that she is Tamei Leidah even though she gave birth without seeing blood. 1
Moshav Zekenim citing Nidah 35b: "Devosah Titma" includes Bo'el Yoledes (he is like Bo'el Nidah), and the nights (we do not expound "ki'Yemei" to exclude the nights), and Yoledes b'Zov, that she must count seven clean days (like a regular Zavah).. Just like clean days of Nidah (i.e. in which she does not see blood) do not count towards seven clean days that a Zavah needs, so clean days of Leidah do not count towards seven clean days that a Yoledes b'Zov needs.
Sifra (1:1:7, according to Ra'avad): This teaches that even though Koshi (pains before birth) is Metaher from Zivah, it is not Metaher from Nidah.
The Rashbam learns this from the fact that the Torah does not mention blood with regard to the birth.
What is the meaning of "D'vosah"?
Rashi #1: It is an expression of flowing. 1
Rashi #2, Ramban #1, and Rashbam: It is an expression of sickness 2 - because when a woman sees blood, she is sick - since her head and her limbs feel heavy.
Ramban #2: It is an expression of plague and pain. 3
Rashi writes that since animals were created before man, their laws were taught first. If so, laws of males, e.g. Metzora, should precede laws of females!
Riva: The Torah teaches first what is common. Most women give birth, but a minority of men become Metzora'im.
Riva citing R"M of Kutzi: After discussing Tum'ah and Taharah of food, it discusses Tum'ah and Taharah of people. It began with Yoledes, for birth is the beginning [of man].
Riva citing R"M of Kutzi (from Vayikra Rabah 15:5): Metzora was taught after Tum'ah Yoledes (which is like Nidah), to teach that if she has Bi'ah when she is Nidah, the child will be a Metzora.
Why is Parshas Yoledes taught here?
Rosh: Yoledes was taught after the forbidden species, for Hashem commands the fetus not to eat them, and after he accepts, he is born.
Moshav Zekenim #1: Yoledes was taught shortly after the Mitzvah to be Kadosh (11:44), for one must sanctify himself at the time of relations, 1 and request from the One who gives children. "Daber El Bnei Yisrael Leimor" teaches that they should tell this to their wives.
Moshav Zekenim #2: Yoledes was taught shortly after "Al Teshaktzu Es Nafshoseichem"(11:43), to teach that one should not have relations right after 2 being in the privy.
Moshav Zekenim, citing Sotah11b: Yoledes was taught shortly after Yetzi'as Mitzrayim (11:45), to teach that the redemption was in the merit of righteous women.
Moshav Zekenim #3: Yoledes was taught shortly after "ba'Mayim" (11:46), to teach that a woman becomes pregnant only shortly after she immerses (Nidah 31b).
Moshav Zekenim #4: Yoledes was taught right after "Lehavdil" (11:47), to teach that one must separate from his wife shortly before her Veses (when she is due to menstruate). In this merit she will give birth to a male proper to give rulings in Yisrael.
Moshav Zekenim #5: Yoledes was taught right after "Lehavdil" (11:47), to teach that [if she converted, or was raped 3 ] she must delay three months (before having relations), to distinguish between a fetus conceived in Kedushah and one conceived not in Kedushah.
Refer to 13:2:1:4.
Moshav Zekenim: E.g. they should not desire other conjugal partners at the time (Nedarim 20b). If she has thoughts of Yir'as Shamayim, the child will have Yir'as Shamayim.
Gitin 70a: One should delay the time to walk half a Mil (nine or 11 minutes).
Likewise, if she was widowed or divorced, she must delay three months to avoid a Safek about who is the father (Yevamos 42a).
To which women do Tum'as and Korban Yoledes apply?
Moshav Zekenim citing Toras Kohanim: "Bnei Yisrael" excludes Nochriyos. "Ishah" includes converts 1 and Shifchos, both before and after freedom (Kerisus 7b).
Moshav Zekenim: In Kesuvos (44b) it says that a convert is a full Yisraelis! That is when her conception was in Kedushah (both parents were Jeiwsh). If not, we need a Drashah to include her.
For which babies do Tum'as and Korban Yoledes apply?
Moshav Zekenim: It is both for a (viable baby, that was in the womb for) seven month and nine month baby, and an eight month baby (a Nefel) or a mashed baby, or it came out cut up. There is an argument if the head was cut up. It is even for a miscarriage after 40 days, or a Shilya (fetal sac), However, the form of a fish is excluded; it must be a human form. Tana'im argue about the form of an animal.
Rashi writes that even if the baby resembles Zera (the Parshah applies). If there is not a human form, there is no Tum'as Leidah!
Moshav Zekenim, citing Rosh: The form is recognized; Chachamim call this a Shefir Merukam.
Rashi writes that even if the baby resembles Zera (the Parshah applies). Here it says that she is Tamei for seven days. If we cannot tell the gender, she is Tamei for 14 days, for perhaps it was a female!
Perhaps the Drashah teaches that it is considered a birth, and automatically we understand that due to Safek, she must observe 14 days of Tum'ah (PF). 1
Moshav Zekenim citing the Ri left this difficult.
According to the opinion that there is always blood with birth, why did the Torah need to teach that Yoledes Zachar is Tamei for seven days?
Moshav Zekenim #1, citing R. Yeshayah; If not, we would have learned from a Kal v'Chomer. Yoledes Nekevah, has more Yemei Tohar, and she is Tamei for 14 days, and all the more so Yoledes Zachar!
Moshav Zekenim #2: If she gave birth during the days of Zivah, due to Dam Leidah she would be Shomeres Yom k'Neged Yom, and she could immerse the next day, The verse teaches that she is Tamei for seven days.
Moshav Zekenim #3: If she became Nidah and gave birth on day seven 1 of Nidah, Dam Leidah would not affect her, and she could immerse at night. The verse teaches that she is Tamei for seven days.
Moshav Zekenim citing R. Yitzchak: This teaches about Yoledes amidst Koshi (labor pain)..The blood should not be Metamei her, for we expound "Damah" but not blood due to birth of a child (Nidah 36b).
A similar Nafka Minah is if she saw blood due to labor [or one twin was born] during the day, but the [second] baby was born only at night. Due to Tum'as Leidah, she counts seven days from the day of the [second] birth. (PF)
A Yoledes Zachar - why is she Tamei for seven days?
Moshav Zekenim #1: This corresponds to seven days of Aveilus. 1
Moshav Zekenim #2, Otzar ha'Midrashim, R. Avigdor (Nidah 30b): This recalls that a male was created on day six of creation. The Taharah after his birth is after seven days, which is seeing the countenance of Shabbos. Chavah was created in the second week, according to R. Pinchas ben Ya'ir (unlike Chachamim, who say that also she was created on day six), so her Taharah is after 14 days.
He did not explain the connection. Perhaps there is Tum'ah now, for eventually there will be Aveilus over him when he dies. (PF)