Why does the Torah write "Vayedaber Aharon" and not "Vayomer Aharon"?
Seeing as Moshe was angry with Elazar and Isamar, why did Aharon answer?
What did Aharon mean when he said to Moshe "Hein ha'Yom Hikrivu ... "?
Rashi (from Zevachim, 101a): In answer to Moshe's suggestion, that perhaps they had sprinkled the blood even though they were On'nim, Aharon replied that it was not his sons who had sprinkled the blood, but he - and a Kohen Gadol who is an Onein is permitted to perform the Avodah. 1
Rashbam: With reference to the Chatas and the Olah, he was saying that it was perfectly in order for him to bring the Korbanos with which he was being inaugurated, and for his sons to assist in sacrificing them 2 ...
Seforno: 'Imagine if they would have brought a Chatas Chovah or an Olas Nedavah, even though they are not Kodshei Tzibur le'Doros ... '.
Targum Yonasan: With reference to Yisrael having brought their Chatas and their Olah, Aharon said that now that his two sons had died, he was even forbidden to eat Ma'aser Sheini, 3 how much more so a Chatas! ...
Riva, citing Chizkuni: Moshe suggested that they thought that it was disqualified due to Aharon's Avodah b'Aninus. Aharon answered that as Kohen Gadol, he was Kosher to offer Kodshei Sha'ah, but not Kodshei Doros. 4
See Ramban, who asks that they brought all the Korbanos before Nadav and Avihu died, and elaborates.
Riva: This is difficult. They were discussing Chatas Rosh Chodesh, and [according to Rashi] Aharon said 'I offered' it, i.e. it is Kosher! (A Mishnah (Horiyos 3:5) teaches that a Kohen Gadol offers when he is Onen, i.e. even Kodshei Doros! Perhaps Chizkuni means 'I (Aharon) offered everything, so nothing was disqualified. However, there is no Heter to eat Kodshei Doros. - PF)
What did Aharon mean when he said "Vatikrenah osi ka'Eileh"?
Rashi: He meant that the same would apply even if it was another relative, and not his sons for whom he was an Onein. 1
Targum Yonasan: 'I would deserve that my other two sons should get burned. 3
What did Aharon mean when he added "V'achalti Chatas ha'Yom ... "?
Rashi and Seforno: He meant that, had he eaten the Chatas, it would certainly not have been good in the Eyes of Hashem. 1
Rashbam: 'Now that our Simchah has been totally disrupted, do you expect me to eat the Chatas of Kodshei Doros,!' 2
Targum Yonasan: 'If I were to forget and eat from the Korban Chatas'. 3
Because, although the Kohen Gadol Onein is permitted to serve, he is not allowed to eat Kodshim - and if Hashem told Moshe that they should eat Kodshei Sha'ah (the special Korbanos of that day), that did not extend to Kodshei Doros (the regular Korbanos [Rashi]) - seeing as the eating of an Onein even of Kodshim Kalim does not atone (Refer to 10:19:3:4*), certainly not of Kodshei Kodshim (Seforno).
It can be compared to a Kalah who sinned during her Chupah (Rashbam, citing Gitin, 36b).
What are the connotations of "ha'Yom"?
Rashi: It is on the day of the burial that he becomes an Onein that he is forbidden to eat Kodshim, but not on the following night. 1
Rashi: When it is only Asur mid'Rabanan. Ramban (16) - Rashi made this statement according to the opinion that they burned the Chatas on account of Tum'ah (Otherwise, rather than burn it, they should have waited to eat it at night).
According to the opinion that it was burned due to Tum'ah, they were all Tamei Mes, for Parah Adumah was not yet done!
Moshav Zekenim: A Ben Noach does not receive Tum'ah (Nazir 61b. They were not exposed to Tum'as Mes from Matan Torah until now. - PF)
Why does it say "v'Achalti Chatas"? It should say "v'Ochel"!
Moshav Zekenim: Aharon said, I already ate two Chata'os, and I am satiated. 1 It occurred that two sons died, who would have helped me to eat it.
I.e. I [and my sons] are so satiated that to eat now would be Achilah Gasah, which is not a Mitzvah at all. We must say that they burned it close to dawn. If not, perhaps they will have appetite later!
QUESTIONS ON RASHI
Rashi writes that it would have been disrespectful for Aharon's son to answer their Rebbe. Also Aharon was Moshe's Talmid!
Tosfos Yom Tov (Avos 4:12): Since there is a Mitzvah to honor an older brother, they are considered equal.
This was only 10 months after Matan Torah! (PF)
Rashi writes that it would have been disrespectful for Aharon's son to answer his Rebbe. Moshe asked them to answer him (refer to 10:16:5:1)!
Maskil l'David: Since Aharon could answer, and he was not considered a Talmid (refer to 10:19:151:1,2), he answered in place of his sons.
Rashi writes that 'if Hashem commanded to eat Kodshei Sha'ah, can we say so about Kodshei Doros?' Moshe should have asked Hashem, like he did about every doubt!
Rosh (from Zevachim 101a): Moshe had heard, and forgot, and after Aharon said so, he remembered. (Refer to 10:20:152:1.)
Rashi writes 'my sons did not offer, rather, I, the Kohen Gadol; I may offer b'Aninus.' They finished offering the Korbanos before Nadav and Avihu died!
Ramban, Moshav Zekenim: Perhaps Moshe did not see the Hakravah, and did not know that they finished before Nadav and Avihu died.
Moshav Zekenim citing the Rosh: "Va'Yered me'Asos
Rashi writes 'my sons did not offer, rather, I, the Kohen Gadol; I may offer b'Aninus.' Also his children were like Kohanim Gedolim at the time!
Riva, Moshav Zekenim: They were like Kohanim Gedolim only to be stringent.
Refer to 10:6:1:2**.
Rashi writes that 'if Hashem commanded to eat Kodshei Sha'ah, can we say so about Kodshei Doros?' In Chagigah (6a), we learn Chagigah from the Nesi'im, i.e. Doros from Sha'ah!
Moshav Zekenim: It is a mere Giluy Milsa, for there was a tradition for [spending for Chagigah and Olas Re'iyah] two [Ma'ah of] Kesef and [one] Ma'ah, and we would not know which [is for which. For this, we learn from the Nesi'im (they brought more Shelamim than Olos). This requires investigation.