What was Hashem telling Moshe here, with the distinction between Keil Shakai and Havayah?
Rashi #1 and Rashbam: Elaborating on His previous statement, Hashem is telling Moshe that, although He promised the Avos (to take their children out of Egypt and to give them Eretz Cana'an, 1 He did not reveal Himself to them with the Name Havayah (which has connotations of keeping His promises) but with the Name Keil Shakai. 2 Now however, He was revealing Himself with the Name Havayah, which meant that He was about to keep that promise. 3
Rashi #2 (on Pasuk 9) and Ramban #3: Hashem was bemoaning the loss of the irreplaceable Avos, who did not query Him, 4 even though He only appeared to them with the Name Keil Shakai 5 ; yet Moshe, who had already been informed that he would witness the Name Havayah, is querying Him. 6
Ramban #1 (according to the Ibn Ezra) and Seforno 7 : Keil Shakai 8 denotes that Hashem dealt with them within the realm of nature (including the miracles), whereas Havayah denotes the era of supernatural miracles that was now beginning. 9
Seforno: He was informing Moshe that not only did He create the world, but that He maintains all of His creations, 10 since nothing can exist other than by His ongoing grace.
Targum Onkelos: He informed Him that He did not reveal the Name Havayah to the Avos, 11 only that of Keil Shakai.
To Avraham in Lech-Lecha (17:8), to Yitzchak in Toldos (26:3) and to Ya'akov in Vayishlach (35:11) - a promise made but not yet fulfilled (Rashi on Pasuk 4).
Which meant that the Avos would not witness the fulfillment of that promise.
In other words, Moshe was about to witness what the Avos did not merit to see. See also Rashi on Pasuk 9.
See also Ba'al ha'Turim DH 'Va'eira El Avraham'.
Hadar Zekenim (verse 2), Riva: If the praise of the Avos is that they did not ask Hashem's name, the verse should say so! Also, Hashem told them the name Havayah. What is the praise that they did not ask? Rather, Rashi's first Perush is primary.
See Sifsei Chachamim. In brief, now that Hashem had appeared to him with the Name Havayah, he ought to have understood that He would have mercy on Yisrael, and that He would perform with them wonders and save them. And that is what he should automatically have passed on to Yisrael.
Who explain that the 'Beis' of "be'Keil Shakai" carries forward to "u'Shemi Hashem" (implying "uvi'Shemi Hashem"), with reference to the two different methods of approach that Hashem used with the Avos and with Moshe. See Ramban DH 've'Hinei'.
Which means that Hashem harnesses and overrides the Mazalos - but without changing the laws of nature (which He only does using the Name Havayah).
This is the explanation that Rashi rejects. See also Ramban, Pasuk 2, DH 'Vayedaber Elokim'.
Ramban: With which He appeared to the Avos. Ha'Emunah ve'ha'Bitachon Perek 6 - this is the display of honor with which He will appear to future prophets. Only Moshe attained the Kisei (ha'Kavod), which is like the body of the Neshamah.
With which He appeared to Moshe (see Ramban, DH 've'Al Derech ha'Emes'.
Why did Hashem mention each of the Avos individually?
Rashi: Because He made the promise to save their children to each one independently. 1
How does one fulfill "v'Herim Es ha'Deshen... "?
Rashi: He takes a shovel-full of ashes from the middle, where they are well-burnt and placed them on the east side of the ramp.
Moshav Zekenim: [Even] if one was disgraced like ashes, once he engages in Torah, he is elevated - "umi'Nachi'el Bamos."
Having written "ha'Deshen", why does the Torah see fit to add "asher Tochal ha'Eish Es ha'Olah"?
Rashi: Refer to 6:3:3:1.
What happened to those ashes when they accumulated? How did they dispose of them?
How does this tie up with the following Pasuk, which requires the ashes to be taken outside the camp?
Rashi (on Pasuk 4) and Rashbam: The current T'rumas ha'Deshen, which is confined to one shovel-full of spent ashes, 1 was the first Avodah to be performed each morning. 2 Taking out all the ashes from the Mizbe'ach, on the other hand, pertained to the ashes on the Tapu'ach - the pile of ashes that they accumulated on a separate location on the Mizbe'ach from the Ma'arachah - was performed only when the pile had become excessive.
What are the implications of the words "Es ha'Olah Al ha'Mizbe'ach"?
Rashi Yashan: It implies that, after removing the shovel-full of ashes, he (or presumably any other Kohen) must replace any limbs that are not yet completely burned that one finds , back on to the Mizbe'ach.
Moshav Zekenim: Ha'Olah refers to the Neshamah - "Ru'ach Bnei ha'Adam ha'Olah Hi l'Ma'alah" (Koheles 3:21). In the merit of the Torah, it will be on the Mizbe'ach above. First they bring the Neshamos of Tzadikim, and offer them on the Mizbe'ach above - "Yasimu Ketorah b'Apecha" in this world "v'Chalil Al Mizbechecha" (Devarim 33:10) above. Afterwards, "v'Samo Etzel ha'Mizbe'ach" above, under the Kisei ha'Kavod - "v'Haysah Nefesh Adoni Tzerurah bi'Tzror ha'Chayim" - under the Kisei ha'Kavod.
The verse connotes that Hashem revealed himself to each of the Avos with the name Shakai. We do not find so regarding Yitzchak!
Hadar Zekenim: He said to Yitzchak "I will fulfill the oath that I took to Avraham", which was with the name Shakai.
What is "Bad"?
Moshav Zekenim: R. Efrayim inferred that [what we call] Kanvus is flax, and it is forbidden with wool, since the Gemara did not ask 'we should say that it is Kanvus, which grows Bad b'Vad'! R. Tam rejected this; the Gemara did not ask this, for Bigdei Kehunah can be only of wool or linen. (Alternatively, Bad b'Vad means that only one stalk sprouts from one seed - Tosfos 18b)
What do we learn from "v'Samo Etzel ha'Mizbe'ach"?
Moshav Zekenim: Chulin 117 says that this is one of Sheloshah 1 Kesuvim ha'Ba'im k'Echad in which Me'ilah applies after the Mitzvah was done.
Moshav Zekenim: The others are a Kohen Gadol's garments after Yom Kipur, and Eglah Arufah. It does not list Shor ha'Niskal, for it is an obligation, and not a Mitzvah, not Arifas Peter Chamor, for the primary Mitzvah is redemption.