Why does it say "va'Ydaber Elokim El Moshe"?
Rashi: Hashem spoke to him with Mishpat (Midas ha'Din), because Moshe spoke harshly to Him and asked why He did evil to Yisrael.
Rashi writes that Hashem spoke to Moshe with Mishpat,, for Moshe asked Him why He did evil to Yisrael. If so, why did He inform him that His Name is Havayah?
Rashi: Because Havayah is also the Name that denotes that Hashem is faithful to reward those who go in His ways 1 and to punish those who rebel against Him.
Da'as Zekenim (verse 3): Even though I said that you are Elohim to Pharaoh, I am Hashem also for you.
Consequently, He did not send Moshe in vain, but to carry out the promise that He had made to the Avos (who went in His ways) that He would redeem their children (Rashi).
Why did the Torah see fit to insert "Tzav" specifically here, by the Korban Olah?
Rashi (citing R. Shimon): Because encouragement is particularly crucial when it involves financial loss. 1
Ramban #1: The Beraisa that Rashi quotes cites R. Shimon, not because he argues with the Chachamim 2 regarding the Korban Olah, where the Kohanim gain the skin, 3 but because he argues with them in principle, in other locations in the Torah, where there is total financial loss and no gain. 4
Ramban #2: He also argues with them regarding the Korban Olah - the Olah that Aharon and his sons bring on the day that they are inaugurated, and which the Kohen Gadol continues to bring 5 on a daily basis. 6
Where he fully agrees with them.
See, for example, 24:2, regarding the Menorah, and Bamidbar 35:2, regarding the towns that Yisrael had to give to the Levi'im (Ramban).
The Minchas Chavitin.
See Pasuk 13. By the same token, it could also refer to the Olas ha'Of, of which is completely burned on the Mizbe'ach and of which the Kohen receives nothing. (See after Sheini in Vayikra).
Seeing as "Toras" always comes to include, what does "Zos Toras ha'Olah [Hi ha'Olah]" come to include?
Moshav Zekenim, Ba'al ha'Turim (citing Menachos 110a): It comes to teach us that if someone studies the laws of Olah, it is as if he had actually brought an Olah. 3 Korbanos are called Isheh and Lechem, and so is Torah. Just like the world cannot survive without Lechem, it cannot survive without Torah.
Moshav Zekenim citing Tanchuma: It says after this "Al Mokdah" to teach that anyone who raises himself is proper to be burned. This includes the evil kingdom -"Im Tagbi'ah ka'Nesher
Such as Yotzei, Pigul, Nosar and Tamei, which all became Pasul after Shechitah, when the animal is proper to go on the Mizbe'ach.
This does not pertain to Nesachim, which must be taken down - irrespective of whether they are Pasul (even if the Korban that they are accompanying is Kasher), or the Korban is Pasul, or both (Ramban, citing R. Yehoshua in Zevachim, 83a).
And the Gemara there makes the same Drashah about Minchah, Chatas, Asham and Shelamim later in the Parshah.
What do we learn from "Hi ha'Olah"?
Rashi: It comes to preclude animals that were Pasul before they entered the Azarah, e.g. an animal that had relations with a person 1 , which must be taken down.
Targum Onkelos: It refers to the Olah that they brought at Har Sinai. 2
Moshav Zekenim: Torah atones like an Olah, it is totally to Hashem like an Olah, and it is all for the fire like an Olah - "ha'Lo Cho Devari ka'Esh" (Yirmeyah 23:29).
What basic Halachah is this Pasuk coming to teach us?
Ramban, Rashbam, Moshav Zekenim: It is coming to teach us that, although a Korban can only be brought by day, 1 once it is placed on the Mizbe'ach, it is a Mitzvah to ensure that it continues to burn all night. 2
As the Torah indicates in 19:6 (Rashbam).
Why does the Torah insert the words "Al Mokdah Al ha'Mizbe'ach Kol ha'Laylah"?
Rashi (Shemos 23:18, according to Gur Aryeh): One may put limbs on the fire the entire night, even at the end of the night, and they will continue to burn the next day.
Or ha'Chayim: To teach us that, in spite of the fact that once something that is Pasul is taken down from the Mizbe'ach it is not taken up again, that is not the case in the event that it caught fire.
Rashi writes that Hashem spoke to Moshe with Mishpat. What is the source to say so?
Mizrachi (1st answer): Elokim means judge. It is also Midas ha'Din.
Da'as Zekenim, Moshav Zekenim and Mizrachi (2), from Makos 11a: "Va'Ydaber" connotes harsh 1 speech.
Ta'anis (30b): Until Dor ha'Midbar died out (like was decreed after the Meraglim), Hashem's Dibur was not Misyached with Moshe. Rashi (Devarim 2:16) - i.e. it does not say va'Ydaber, an expression of Chibah (endearment)! Moshav Zekenim - only va'Ydaber Elokim is harsh. Bartenura (32:7) - when it says "va'Ydaber... Leimor", it is not harsh. Kli Yakar (Devarim 2:16) - va'Ydaber is harsh rebuke. Hashem rebukes one whom He loves (Mishlei 3:12).
Rashi writes that here, Shem Havayah alludes to faithfulness to reward. He should say that it refers to faithfulness to punish, for it is written near Elokim (Mishpat)!
Moshav Zekenim: "Va'Yomer Elav" separates Shem Havayah from Elokim.
Moshav Zekenim: Va'Yomer is an expression of Chibah (endearment).
Why did Hashem tell Moshe to command Aharon? Why did He Himself not command Aharon, like He commanded him not to serve while drunk ("va'Ydaber Hashem El Aharon" - 10:8)?
Moshav Zekenim, citing R. Eliezer of Garmaiza: Hashem wanted to give all the Mitzvos through Moshe. Since Moshe began the Mitzvah (of giving Torah to Yisrael), he should complete it. The only exception 1 was serving while drunk, lest Aharon suspect that Moshe considers him a drunkard. 2
This is unlike Mechilta, which says that there were three exceptions, and unlike Sifra, which says that there were no exceptions!(PF) Refer to 10:8:151:1,2 and the notes there.
I do not understand the concern. Moshe will tell him 'so Hashem commanded me to tell you!' Also, the command is needed for all generations! (PF)
Nidah 40a expounds "Zos Toras ha'Olah Hi ha'Olah" to be three exclusions (cases in which it is taken down from the Mizbe'ach). We should say that a Mi'ut after a Mi'ut comes to include!
Moshav Zekenim (from Yerushalmi Horiyos 1:1): This is when there are two exclusions, but not when there are three. However, the Bavli in Sanhedrin (15a) uses the 10 exclusions "Kohen" to include! 1
Moshav Zekenim citing Rashbam: When the exclusion limits the connotation, like Kohen, a Mi'ut after a Mi'ut comes to include. However, when we exclude just because the word is extra, e.g. Zos Hi ha'Olah, all the Mi'utim exclude.
See Peirush Yonasan.
Why is 'Al' repeated - "Al Mokdah Al"?
Tosfos ha'Shalem (20, citing Moshav Zekenim): This hints that one who engages in Torah (Mokdah, fire) should not forgo praying with a Minyan, and 100 (the Gematriya of Al) Berachos. There is a time for Torah, and a time for prayer.
Moshav Zekenim: This hints to the Heichal, which was 100 Amos by 100 (see Me'iri Yuma 16b), and at the end it will be burned.
What do we learn from "v'Esh ha'Mizbe'ach Tukad Bo Lo Sichveh"?
Ramban, Moshav Zekenim: Kohanim are commanded to put enough to wood so the fire on the Mizbe'ach will not extinguish. Lo Sichveh forbids extinguishing even a coal from the Mizbe'ach, or taking it down from the Mizbe'ach.