hebrew
1)

Why did the Torah specifically mention lighting a fire over and above all the other Melachos?

1.

Rashi #1 and Ramban #1 (citing Shabbos, 70a): According to R. Yossi, it is to teach us that lighting a fire is only a La'av and is not subject to Kares.

2.

Rashi #2 and Ramban #2 (Ibid.): According to R. Nasan, it is to teach us that one is Chayav on Shabbos for each Melachah that one transgresses - and not just if one transgresses all thirty-nine.

3.

Ramban and Rashbam: To teach us that the prohibition of Melachah on Shabbos extends even to Ochel Nefesh. 1

4.

Seforno: To teach that even though lighting fire is normally a Kilkul, for which one is generally Patur on Shabbos, one is Chayav. The reason that one is Chayav in the case of lighting a fire is because lighting a fire is needed for the performance of all, or most, other Melachos.

5.

Torah Temimah (citing Shabbos, 20a): It teaches us that the prohibition of lighting a fire (and burning on it) is confined to private use, but is permitted with regard to burning the fat-pieces and limbs of Korbanos.

6.

Moshav Zekenim citing Bechor Shor: It does not seem so much to be a Melachah. Da'as Zekenim, Hadar Zekenim - perhaps people would say, let us make a fire or coals on Shabbos, so we can do work for the Mishkan after Shabbos!

7.

Moshav Zekenim citing the Rosh: It is needed for and applies to all people.

8.

Erech Apayim 2 (va'Yosef Avraham 5, from the Zohar): "Fire" refers to anger. Even though it is always forbidden, on Shabbos one may not even show anger on the face [even if he feels calm].


1

As opposed to Yom-Tov, where lighting a fire in order to cook is permitted (See Shemos 12:16), regarding Shabbos, the Torah (in Shemos 16:23), requires that one prepares one's food before Shabbos (Rashbam). See also Ramban.

2)

We should say that "Kol ha'Oseh Vo Melachah Yumas" is a Klal, "Lo Seva'aru" is a Prat, and a Klal u'Ferat teaches only the Prat, but not other Melachos!

1.

Moshav Zekenim: It does not say Kol ha'Oseh Kol Melachah Yumas, so it cannot teach about the Klal.

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