When was this Parshah said?
Rashi: After Matan Torah. 1
According to the other commentaries, all the previous Pesukim also refer to after Matan Torah (according to the Ramban, this Pasuk is the actualisation of the command in Pasuk 1, where Hashem informed Moshe in advance, what He would later command him). Moshav Zekenim - this was to fulfill "Ta'avdun Es ha'Elokim Al ha'Har ha'Zeh." See Sh'mos, 3:12.
Where did Moshe ascend to?
Ramban: This is merely a repetition of Pesukim 1 & 2. 1
Ramban (ha'Emunah veha'Bitachon Perek 6): Hashem told Moshe to rise level after level.
What are conmnotations of "ve'Heyei Sham"?
Rashi: That referred to the initial forty days that Moshe was destined to spend on Har Sinai learning the Torah.
Ramban: Moshe was to remain remain there until Hashem gave him the Luchos.
Seforno: In refers to an extended, unspecified, period of time. 1
What is the significance of the fact that the Luchos were made of stone?
Hadar Zekeinim #1: One who engages in Torah must have jaws that are as tough as stone to bear the yoke of [constantly saying words of] Torah.
Hadar Zekeinim #2: One who engages in Torah must have jaws that are as tough as stone, i.e. the audacity to ask reasons for Torah laws. 1 In the end, he will be elevated.
Hadar Zekenim: As the Mishnah says in Pirkei Avos (2:5) 'Someone who is shy cannot learn.'
What is "ha'Torah ve'ha'Mitzvah..." referring to?
Rashi: It is referring to the Taryag Mitzvos that are contained in the Aseres ha'Dibros. 1
Ramban #1: "Asher Kasavti" refers to the Luchos, and "Lehorosam", to the Torah and Mitzvos 2 (that Hashem would teach him during the time that he was on Har Sinai).
Ramban #2 (citing the Midrash): It hints at the fact that the entire Torah was written in front of Hashem already before the Creation. 3
Seforno: "ha'Torah" refers to the part of Torah that needs to be studied; "ve'ha'Mitzvah", to the Halachos. 4
Targum Yonasan: It is referring to the rest of the Torah and the Taryag Mitzvos that are hinted in the Luchos.
Moshav Zekenim: "Luchos ha'Even ve'ha'Torah" are Chukim and Mishpatim. "Ve'ha'Mitzvah" is Mishnah; "Asher Kasavti" is Nevi'im and Kesuvim. 5
B'rachos, 5a: "Luchos"
Rashi: R. Sa'adyah Ga'on actually connects each of the Taryag Mitzvos to one of the Aseres ha'Dibros.
As the Ramban ecplained in his introduction to the Chumash.
All of which, if not for the sin of the golden Calf, Hashem would have handed to Moshe in writing, like He did the Luchos, as the Torah writes in Ha'azinu, Devarim 33:2, and it was due to the fact that they sinned that He subsequently commanded Moshe to transcribe it (See Ki Sisa, Sh'mos 34:27). As a matter of fact, Yisrael lost all rights to the Divinely-written Luchos, and Moshe only brought them down in order to smah them in front of the people, to shock them into doing Teshuvah (Seforno).
Moshav Zekenim: Some prove from here that one may put a Gemara or Mishnah on Nevi'im or Kesuvim, for Hashem put Mishnah before them. I disagree. Mishnah was taught beforehand to put it next to Torah, for it comes from Torah, and not because it is greater than Nevi'im and Kesuvim!
What are the connotaions of "Lehorosam"?