hebrew
1)

What is the deeper meaning of "Shochad"? Why does the Torah prohibit it?

1.

Kesuvos, 105a: "Shochad" is the acronym of 'she'Hu Chad'

2)

Since the Torah will warn, in Devarim (16:19), against perversion of justice, why does the Torah see fit to prohibit the taking of bribes?

1.

Rashi: To teach us that taking bribes is forbidden even in order to judge truthfully.

3)

Why does the Torah write "ve'Shochad Lo Sikach" and not 'u'Betza'?

1.

Kesuvos, 135a: Because whereas 'Betza' implies money, 'Shochad' incorporates whatever one gives.

4)

What are the ramifications of "Ki ha'Shochad Ye'aver Pikchim"?

1.

Rashi: Irrespective of the caliber of the Dayan, once a Dayan accepts a bribe, his mind becomes warped, he forgets his learning and the light of his eyes becomes dim. 1

2.

Targum Onkelos: It makes the wise blind. 2

3.

Targum Yonasan: 'Because Shochad blinds the eyes of those who accept it - It moves the Chachamim from their dwellings 3 and perverts the true rulings that are written in the Torah. 4

4.

Kesuvos, 105a: Come and see how effective is the blindness of those who accept bribes


1

Inasmuch as they are unable to see the truth.

2

See Rashbam.

3

See Yayin ha'Tov.

4

Na'ar Yonasan: These phrases are not translations; they appear however, in the form of two incidents recorded in Kesuvos, 105b.

5)

The Pasuk in Shoftim, Devarim, 16:19 "Ki ha'Shochad Ye'aver Einei Chachamim, why doe th Torah insert the current Pasuk?

1.

Mechilta: Whereas the Pasuk in Shoftim is referring to physical blindness, the current Pasuk is referring to blindness of the Seichel. 1


1

Refer to 28:3:2:1. See also Torah Temimah, 71, who cites and explains the conclusion of the Mechilta.

6)

What is the meaning of "vi'Yesalef Divrei Tzadikim"?

1.

Rashi, Targum Onkelos and Targum Yonasan: It (Shochad) perverts the righteous words (judgments) of the Torah. 1

2.

Mechilta: Accepting Shochad causes a Dayan to hate the righteous words that were said on Har Sinai. 2


1

And causes the Dayanim to speak in a confused manner when judging (Targum Yonasan).

2

See Torah Temimah, note 72.

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