What is the definition of "Lo Sin'af"?
Rashi: It is the prohibition against committing adultery with a married woman.
Moshav Zekenim: Lo Siten Af, i.e. do not do witchcraft at the time of Nisu'in of a man and his wife to put hatred between them. The Targum Yerushalmi of "Lo Yachavol Rechayim va'Rechev" (Devarim 24:6) is "do not forbid Chasan and Kalah." One who does so is Chayav Misah. Rechayim is a woman, and Rechev is a man.
What sort of theft does "Lo Signov refer to?
Rashi: It refers to kidnapping. 1
What are the ramifications of the description in Shir ha'Shirim (4:5) of the two Luchos as 'twins'?
Rashi (in Shir ha'Shirim): This hints at the fact that the five Dibros on the second Lu'ach correspond to the five Dibros on the second set, as follows: "Anochi" - "Lo Sirtzach". 1 "Lo Yih'yeh Lecha" - "Lo Sin'af". 2 "Lo Sisa" - "Lo Signov". 3 "Zachor" - "Lo Sa'aneh". 4 "Kabeid Es" - "Lo Sachmod". 5
Ramban #1 (citing Seifer ha'Yetzirah): The two Luchos correspond to the ten fingers and the ten toes - five against five, with the B'ris of the mouth in between the two sets of fingers and the B'ris Milah in between the two sets of toes. The first Lu'ach corresponds to the written Torah, the second Lu'ach, to the oral Torah. This is what the Midrash means when it says that the two Luchos correspond to Heaven and earth, 6 Chasan and Kalah, the two Shushbinim (best friends) and Olam ha'Ba and Olam ha'Zeh. 7
Ramban #2: The first five Dibros incorporate acknowledging in thought and in deed, that Hashem created existence and to honor one's parents, who are partners in one's formation. The second five constitute a warning not to destroy the work of Hashem's Hands, not to spill the blood of man, whom He created in His honor, not to commit adultery with his wife or to kidnap, thereby disrupting the concept of honoring one's parents; 8 concluding with swearing falsely and theft (coveting what belongs to somebody else). 9
Because someone who murders diminishes the 'Image of Hashem' (Rashi).
Because idolatry on the part of Yisrael is akin to a woman committing adultery with another man (Rashi).
Because theft leads to a false oath (Rashi).
Because someone who breaks the Shabbos is testifying that Hashem did not rest on the Shabbos of the creation (Rashi).
Because someone who covets (another man's wife) will ultimately bear a son who curses him and respects a man who is not his father (Rashi).
The first of each pair corresponds to the written Torah, the second, to the oral Torah (Ramban).
'Only one who is steeped in wisdom will understand the significance of this Midrash' (Ramban).
Why does the Torah present the due punishments and rewards for the first five Dibros, but not for the last five?
Ramban: The Torah presents the punishment for the first, second, third and fifth Dibros due to the honor of Hashem which is at stake. 1 Whereas Kibud Av va'Em will receive the same reward (punishment) as the first and second Dibros. 2 On the other hand, the last five Dibros are for the good of one's fellow-man, and the benefits and losses involved in observing or not observing them are self-evident.
The punishment for the second and third Dibros (which are Mitzvos Lo Sa'aseh), and the reward for the first ("ve'Oseh Chesed la'Alafim") and fifth - which are Mitzvos Asei (Ramban).
Because someone who keeps Shabbos attests to the Creation, whilst someone who breaks it is akin to declaring his belief that the world always existed (Ramban).
What are the punishments for the five Mitzvos on the second Lu'ach?
Targum Yonasan: "Lo Sirtzach" - Cherev (the sword). "Lo Sin'af" - Dever (pestilence). "Lo Signov" - Ra'av (famine). "Lo Sa'aneh - Batzores (drought). "Lo Sachmod" - Aniyus ve'Galus (poverty and exile). 1
On account of the severity of these sins, Targum Yonasan adds by each one of them, a prohibition against joining those who transgress them and against entering into a partnership with them, and issues a ban on accepting them into the community, so that one's children should not learn from them and follow in their footsteps.
Why did the Torah put murder [and the coming Mitzvos] next to Kivud Av v'Em?
Moshav Zekenim #1: This teaches that one may not murder for the sake of Kivud Av v'Em 1
Moshav Zekenim #2: It says about Kivud Av v'Em "so your days will be long"
E.g. Esav commanded his son Elifaz to kill Yakov. (PF)
Even though he lived 147 years, like Yakov, he did not merit the world that is long without limit. (PF)
This Havah Amina is utterly astounding, unless it means that you will steal in order to profit, and then return the principal to the one from whom you stole. Hadar Zekenim cites Bechor Shor, who concludes [like Rashi] that "Lo Signov" is kidnapping. Perhaps one might have thought that Ni'uf, i.e. kidnapping a wife for Bi'ah is forbidden, but other kidnapping, e.g. for labor, is permitted. (PF)
Why is there a Kamatz in Lo Sirtzach in the 'Ta'am Elyon' (found at the end of most Chumashim), and a Patach in the the Ta'am Tachton?
Kol Eliyahu, Divrei Eliyahu: Avodah Zarah (19b) says that "Ki Rabim Chalalim Hipilah" is a Talmid who is not yet qualified to give rulings (like a Nefel that did not develop enough), but rules; "Va'Atzumim Kol Harugeha" (like Otzem Einav) is a Talmid who is qualified to rule, but does not. Both are called murderers, one through Petichas Peh (opening the mouth), and one through Kemitzas Peh (constricting, i.e. closing it).
Why does Hashem's name not appear in the last five Dibros?
Hadar Zekenim and Riva (20), both citing R. Yehoshua in a Midrash: Just like they do not erect statues of the king in stinking alleys (Riva