hebrew
1)

According to Hashem's instructions, when should the Torah have been given?

1.

Rashi and Targum Yonasan: Hashem instructed Moshe on the fourth of Sivan to prepare themselves for two days (the fourt and the fifth of Sivan) and that on the third day (the sixth of Sivan) Hashem would reveal Himself to the people and give the Torah.

2)

What What is the significance of the preparation?

1.

Rashi: Since they were now destined to hear the Aseres ha'Dibros directly from Hashem, they would require a process of purification 1 that would last for three days - from the fourth to the sixth of Sivan, 2 as the Pasuk goes on to explain.


1

In the way that prophets prepare for prophecy (Oznayim la'Torah).

2

On the fifth of Sivan, Moshe built a Mizbe'ach and twelve Matzeivos (monuments) at the foot of the mountain, as the Pasuk describes at the end of Mishpatim (Rashi).

3)

What is the meaning of "Vekidashtem"?

1.

Rashi, Ramban #1 (citing Onkelos) and Seforno: It means "Prepare yourselves". 1

2.

Ramban #2 (citing Ibn Ezra): It means 'Tovel in water'. 2

3.

Ramban #3: It means "Sanctify yourselves" - by keeping away from your wives and from all kinds of Tum'ah. 3


1

As in Yeshayah, 13:3 (Ramban).

2

See Ramban's objection to this explanation.

3

Since someone who distances himself from Tum'ah is called 'Kadosh', as we find in connection with the Kohanim (See Vayikra 21:1). And this automatically entails Tevilah in a Mikveh - See Mechilta (Ramban). Refer also to 19:10:4:1.

4)

What did the preparation entail?

1.

Rashi and Seforno: It entailed separating from their wives (abstaining from intimacy). 1


1

Which became necessary now that they were about to attain (temporarily) a level pf prophecy 'Panim el Panim' (Refer to 19:9:2:2). And this explains why, after Matan Torah, Moshe was forbidden to remain with his wife. See Devarim, 5:27, 28 (Seforno).

5)

Why did they need to wash their clothes?

1.

Mechilta and Yevamos, 46b: Whenever the Pasuk mentions Kibus Begadim, it means that there was Tevilah as well. 1


1

Yevamos, 46b: Because, if Tum'ah requires Tevilah where there is no Kibus Begadim, how much more so where there is. And we learn from here that a Ger requires Tevilah. Refer also to 19:10:2:3*.

6)

Where was this Pasuk said to Moshe? When was it said?

1.

Ramban (Pasuk 14): It was said to Moshe whilst he was on the mountain (on the fourth day, when he presented Hashem with Yisrael's previous response). 1


1

Refer to 19:9:5:1.

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