hebrew
1)

What does the Torah mean when it writes "Va'ta'al Shichvas ha'Tal, ve'Hinei ... "?

1.

Rashi #1, Rashbam and Targum Onkelos: Such is the nature of dew, that when the sun shines, it draws the dew from wherever it is, uncovering whatever lies underneath it. 1 Likewise here, the sun drew the top layer of dew, thereby revealing the Manna that lay beneath it.

2.

Rashi #2 (citing the Tanchuma and Midrash Rabah): Reversing the laws of nature, the dew rose from the ground into the air, to reveal the bread that had descended from the sky. 2

3.

Targum Yonasan: Clouds 3 rose and brought down Manna which they placed on to the layer of dew.


1

Indeed, if one fills an eggshell with dew, covers it and places it in the sun, the dew will rise into the air (Rashi).

2

Sifsei Chachamim.

3

See Na'ar Yonasan.

2)

What is the meaning of the word "Mechuspas"?

1.

Rashi #1 and Ramban (citing Targum Onkelos: It means revealed. 1

2.

Rashi #2: It means 'boxed in' between two layers of dew. 2

3.

Rashbam: From the context, it appears to mean 'spread out'.

4.

Targum Yonasan: Evenly-shaped, as if it was shaped with a ruler. 3


1

When the top layer of dew rose towards the sun (Rashi in Yoma 75b).

2

From the word 'Chafisah', a kind of box or flask (Mishnah, Bava Metzi'a, 1:8 [Rashi]).

3

From the word 'Sargol', a ruler (Peirush Yonasan).

3)

What is the meaning of "ka'Kefor al ha'Aretz"?

1.

Rashi #1 (citing Targum Onkelos), Ramban #1 and Targum Yonasan: It means like frost on the ground. 1

2.

Ramban #2 (citing Targum Onkelos #1): Like pitch 2 (ground and scattered on the floor of the desert) 3 and like frost 4 on the ground.

3.

Ramban #3 (citing Targum Onkelos #2): Thin, lying in piles like frost on the ground. 5


1

To which Targum Onkelos adds 'like black chalk-stones' (ke'Avnei Gir), though this is his own addition, which is not based on any word in the Pasuk (Ramban). See Ramban, who disagrees with Rashi's translation of 'Avnei Gir' (Refer also, to 16:14:3:2*).

2

Like "mi'Bayis u'mi'Chutz ba'Kofer", No'ach 6:14 (in connection with No'ach's boat [Ramban]).

3

The Ramban defines "Avnei Gir" as a white substance that grows on stones that can be ground and used as a better-quality whitener than lime.

4

As in Tehilim (147:16).

5

See Ramban as to why this version is preferable.

4)

Having described the Manna as thin, why does the Torah see fit to add "Dak ka'Kefor"?

1.

Rashi: The Torah is informing us that not only was the Manna thin, but that, in its thinness, it lay attached to the ground like frost.

2.

Seforno: It lay in one thin layer, and not piled up layer upon layer.

3.

Targum Yonasan: The Manna was thin and evenly-shaped, and it was as thin as frost.

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