hebrew
1)

To whom does "Eilim" refer?

1.

Rashi: It refers to all strong (mighty) ones 1 - "Who can compare to You among the mighty ones, Hashem"?

2.

Ramban and Targum Yonasan: Although the word per se, has connotations of strength, it iss specifically the angels who are called "Eilim". 2

3.

Seforno: In thanking Hashem for His victory over the third group, 3 Moshe asks in wonderment who among the strong ones is like Hashem, who is able to change the nature of things that are unchangeable.


1

As in Yechezkel, 17:13 (Rashi).

2

See Ramban, who cites many examples of this, adding that that is why Hashem bears the title 'Elokei ha'Elokim'.

3

Refer to 15:8:1:1.

2)

What are the connotations of "Ne'dar ba'Kodesh"?

1.

Rashbam: The Pasuk is saying "Who is like You, Hashem, who is Mighty in sanctity like You". 1

2.

Seforno: "Kadosh" means eternal (constant). 2 What the Pasuk therefore means is that there is none among the holy and eternal celestial powers like Hashem, who is King over all the 'gods'. Consequently, it is He alone who is able to change even that what is unchanging.


1

A similar format to that of Pasuk 6 (Refer to 15:6:1:3 [Rashbam]).

2

As the Gemara explains in Sanhedrin (92a), in connection with the Tzadikim in the World to Come (Seforno).

3)

And what are the ramifications of "Nora Tehilos"?

1.

Rashi and Ramban #1 (citing also the Ibn Ezra): Hashem is so awesome that one is afraid to praise Him lest one fails to do Him justice. 1

2.

Ramban #2: The Pasuk is saying that Hashem is awesome and praiseworthy through the acts which He performs, 2 as opposed to human kings, who become feared via robbery and deviousness.

3.

Seforno: Someone who understands the extent of Hashem's praises, fears Him (stands in awe of Him) on account of it, and not for fear of the punishment

4.

Rashbam: Through the praises that one sings to Hashem, He becomes feared. 3 .


1

Rashi: As the Pasuk indicates in Tehilim, 65:2.

2

Such as He did here, by exacting vengeance against those who transgressed His will and with the same stroke, saving those who served Him (Ramban).

3

As the Pasuk said (above, Shemos 14:31) "and the people feared Hashem" (Rashbam).

4)

What is "Oseh Pele" then referring to?

1.

Targum Onkelos and Targum Yonasan: It refers to the miracles in general that Hashem performs continually. 1

2.

Seforno: Hashem is able to perform supernatural acts that are impossible to emulate, such as the Pillar of Cloud and the Pillar of Fire.


1

On behalf of Yisrael (Targum Yonasan).

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