hebrew
1)

Bearing in mind that all the Egyptians' animals died in Egypt (See 9:6) and Yisrael took all their animals with them (See 10:26), whose animals did they use to harness their chariots?

1.

Rashi and Targum Yonasan: They took the animals of the G-d-fearing Egyptians 1 who took their animals inside 2 (See Shemos 9:20).


1

Rashi: R. Shimon had this episode in mind, when he stated 'If you come across the most righteous Egyptian, kill him; the best snake, crush its skull!'

2

The Ramban holds that even the animals inside died! Refer to 9:6:151:2 and the note there.

2)

What is the meaning of "v'Shalishim Al Kulo"?

1.

Rashi, Rashbam and Targum Onkelos: It means that each chariot was under the command of an officer (a) seasoned warrior. 1

2.

Targum Yonasan: It refers to Pharaoh's innovation of adding a third 2 horse to each chariot, to increase its speed.

3.

Moshav Zekenim: For each Yisrael, Pharaoh intended 3 to bring three Egyptians, and some say 30, and some say 300. All agree that Hashem brought 900 million angels (Midrash Sechel Tov 12:12) against them (one for each Egyptian 4 ).


1

To whom the Torah refers later (See Shemos 15:4 [Rashbam]). See also Seforno.

2

Hadar Zekenim: Initially there was one horse in a chariot. Yosef added a second

3)

Rashi writes that the most righteous Egyptian, kill him. In Avodah Zarah (26a), it says that we do not raise a Nochri from a pit (to save his life), nor do we throw him in!

1.

Moshav Zekenim #1: Rashi discusses when Yisrael are in control. The Gemara discusses when Nochrim are in control.

2.

Moshav Zekenim #2: Rashi discusses at a time of war. 1 You may kill even a Yisrael who seeks to kill you only if you have no other way to stop him; regarding a Nochri, it is permitted even if there is another way to stop him.

3.

R. Bechayei: The Egyptians saw Hashem's power and intended to rebel against him. This was a war for Hashem (therefore, it is proper to kill them).


1

R. Bechayei: Even in war, we offer a city to surrender before we kill them!

4)

Rashi writes that the best snake, crush its skull! What is the source?

1.

Riva citing R"A: Rashi refers to Pharaoh, who is called Tanin and Nachash; he was the greatest snake.

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