Bearing in mind that all the Egyptians' animals died in Egypt (See 9:6) and Yisrael took all their animals with them (See 10:26), from where did the Egyptians obtain horses to harness their chariots?
Oznayim la'Torah: It is not Hashem that they feared, but the the word of Hashem, the punishment that followed each threat issued by Moshe. And now that Yisrael had fled with all their silver and gold, and the army wanted to chaee after them to retrive their money, they were happy to lend thm their animals. 3
Rashi: R. Shimon had this episode in mind, when he stated 'If you come across the most righteous Egyptian, kill him; the best snake, crush its skull!'
Oznayim la'Torah: Since it was not Hashem that they feared, but their money that they loved. So whenever it was a cas of Sfek Mamon, they went le'Chumra - to make sure that it stayed with them.
What is the meaning of "ve'Shalishim al Kulo"?
Rashi, Rashbam and Targum Onkelos: It means that each chariot was under the command of an officer, a seasoned warrior. 1
Seforno: It means that Par'oh appointed officers over all his troops, even the mercenaries who were not officially part of his army. 2
Moshav Zekenim: For each Yisrael, Par'oh intended 3 to bring three Egyptians, and some say 30, and some say 300. All agree that Hashem brought 900 million angels (Midrash Sechel Tov 12:12) against them (one for each Egyptian 4 ).
Targum Yonasan: It refers to Par'oh's innovation of adding a third horse to each chariot, 5 to increase its speed.
To whom the Torah refers later in 15:4 (Rashbam).
Seforno: Because the success of the army lies with the officers.
Hadar Zekenim: Initially there was one horse in a chariot. Yosef added a second - "b'Mirkeves ha'Mishneh." Par'oh added a third, and Shlomo a fourth - "Merkavah mi'Mitzrayim b'Shesh Me'os Kesef v'Sus ba'Chamishim u'Me'ah" (Melachim 10:29).
Moshav Zekenim: Par'oh did not know that most Yisraelim died during Choshech. According to the opinions (refer to 13:18:1:2*) that only one out of every five, or 50, or 500 lived, beforehand there were three million, 30 million, or 300 million Yisraelim, and 300, 30 or three Egyptians for each Yisrael, respectively.
Why were so many angels needed? One angel killed Sancheriv's army, which was even bigger (Sanhedrin 95b)! Perhaps there was one angel to punish each Egyptian. Perhaps there were not so many Egyptians, but for each Egyptian, a separate angel punished him for each Yisrael that he afflicted! This resolves another question. If there were 500 times as many Egyptians as Yisraelim, the average Egyptian benefited from less than three minutes of Yisrael's labor per day. Why did the fathers fight their Bechoros (refer to 11:5:152:1), preferring the death of their Bechoros over the loss of the slaves?! (PF).
QUESTIONS ON RASHI
Rashi writes that the most righteous Egyptian, kill him. In Avodah Zarah (26a), it says that we do not raise a Nochri from a pit (to save his life), nor do we throw him in!
Moshav Zekenim #1: Rashi discusses when Yisrael are in control. The Gemara discusses when Nochrim are in control.
Moshav Zekenim #2: Rashi discusses at a time of war. 1 You may kill even a Yisrael who seeks to kill you only if you have no other way to stop him; regarding a Nochri, it is permitted even if there is another way to stop him.
R. Bechayei: The Egyptians saw Hashem's power and intended to rebel against him. This was a war for Hashem (therefore, it is proper to kill them).
R. Bechayei: Even in war, we offer a city to surrender before we kill them!
Rashi writes that the best snake, crush its skull! What is the source?
Riva citing R"A: Rashi refers to Par'oh, who is called Tanin and Nachash; he was the greatest snake.