Why does the Torah write "u'Far'oh Hikriv" (brought near) and not 'Karav' (approached)?
Rashi: Having promised his troops that he would fight at their head, he had to force himself to fulfill his word.
Seforno: He moved his troops with their chariots forward.
Targum Yonasan and Da'as Zekenim #1 (on Pasuk 2): As soon as Par'oh set his eyes on Ba'al Tzefon, he offered sacrifices before it. 1
Da'as Zekenim #2 (Ibid.): He caused Yisrael to repent (and come close to Hashem).
Hadar Zekenim (on Pasuk 2): He brought himself close to the idolatry of Ba'al Tzefon.
See also Ba'al ha'Turim.
Why does the Torah write "u'Mitzrayim Nose'a", in the singular?
Rashi #1: Because the Egyptians chased after them 'with one heart, as one man'. 1
Rashi #2: It refers to Uza, the angel of Egypt, who had descended from heaven to assist his nation. 2
Hadar Zekenim: This was the elder Mitzrayim, the son of Cham. However, it is astounding that he lived so long! (Mitzrayim was born before Kena'an, who was already a nation (Bereishis 12:6) before Yitzchak was born, 400 years before Keri'as Yam Suf. It is reasonable that Mitzrayim was born shortly after the flood, almost 800 years before Keri'as Yam Suf!
Having willingly traveled back to the Yam-Suf, why were they now afraid when they saw the Egyptians chasing after them?
Oznayim la'Torah #1: Because 'One canno compare what one hears to what one sees.
Oznayim la'Torah #2: When they traveled back towards Egypt, they never dreamt that those who 'feared Hashem' would lend Par'oh their animals to attack them, that Par'oh would gather not just an army, but all his people, to chase after them.
What are the connotations of "Va'yitz'aku"?
Rashi, Ramban #1, Seforno (Pasuk 15) and Targum Yonasan: They seized the profession of their fathers - they Davened. 1
Ramban #2 (citing Targum Onkelos): They complained to Hashem 2 for taking them out of Egypt, before turning on Moshe.
Ramban #3 (citing the Mechilta): Initially, they prayed to Hashem for Par'oh to withdraw. However, when they saw that he continued to approach them, they assumed that their prayers had not een answered and they turned on Moshe.
Like Avraham, Yitzchak and Ya'akov - See Bereishis 19:27, 28:11, 24:63 (Rashi). With the sea in front of them, the Egyptians behind them and the wild animals of the desert at the side, the Midrash compares them to a dove that tries to escape from the clutches of a vulture by entering into a crack in the rocks, only to be confronted by a hissing snake. That is when Hashem said to Yisrael "Show Me how you look) (your deeds) - to whom you turn (in prayer) when you are in trouble! (Rashi in Shir ha'Shirim, 2:14).
Why here, does the Torah writes "Vayitz'aku ... el Hashem", whereas in Sh'mos 2:23, it wrote "Vayiz'aku ... Vata'al Shav'asam el ha'Elokim"?
Oznayim la'Torah: Because in the Pasuk in Sh'mos is speaking before they knew Hashem, and they cried out from pain and Hashem heard; whereas here, they already knew Hashem and they cried to Him directly, as Hashem wanted them to. 1
How can we reconcile this Pasuk with the following Pasuk, where they complained to Hashem in a derogatory way?
Ramban and Targum Yonasan: There were two groups 1 in Yisrael - The Tzadikim 2 among them Davened to Hashem, and it was the Resha'im who failed to acknowledge the miracle that they were experiencing, who grumbled and spoke harshly to Moshe. 3
Ramban (citing Targum Onkelos): "Vayitz'aku" means that they cried out derogatively, in which case the two Pesukim are speaking about the same people.