What is the translation of "Yomam"?
Rashi (in Yechezkel, 12:4: It means 'every day' - day by day, with reference to something that lasted a long time..
Why does the Torah see fit to add this Pasuk, having already informed us how the two pillars led Yisrael by day and by night?
Rashi: To teach us that, after the pillar of fire arrived, the pillar of cloud remained for a short while before departing, and vice-versa.
How could Hashem belittle his Kavod in this way?
Kidushin, 32a: We see from here that a Rav is permitted to forego his Kavod. 1
Avodah Zarah, 11a: When Onkelos bar K'lonimus converted, he asked the group of Romans whom the emperor sent after him (to bring him back whether, seeing as one lower dignitary after another held a torch for the one above him, the top dignitary held a torch for anybody, to which they replied in the negative. 'But "Hakadosh-Baruch-Hu", he concluded, "went before them" (Yisrael 'illuminated the night on behalf of Yisrael (when they traveled in the desert")'.
See Torah Temimah.
What is the significance of the fact that Yisrael were travelling day and night?
Rashbam: The fact that that they did not stop to rest led Par'oh to believe that Yisrael was fleeing, and encouraged him to give chase. 1
See Torah Temimah citing the Maharsha, who explains the Gemara differently.
Why does the Torah write here that Hashem went before them to illuminate for them and in Mishpatim, 23:20, that He sent an angel to guard them?
Bava Kama, 92b: This is the source of the mantra 'When we were small we were men (who require illumination), and when we grew-up we were children, who need guarding. 1