hebrew
1)

Seeing as Yosef was listed among the seventy who came down to Egypt, why does the Torah find it necessary to mention that Yosef was in Egypt?

1.

Rashi: It wants to point out his Tzidkus, in that despite the fact he was the same Yosef who tended to his father's sheep as the Yosef who lived for many years in (the depraved society of) Egypt, and that he even became 'king' there, yet he remained untainted.

2)

Why does the Torah insert "ha'Kohanim" only after the word "v'Hikrivu"?

1.

Rashi: To teach us that the Mitzvah on the Kohanim begins with the Kabalas ha'Dam, and that consequently, a Zar is eligible to perform the Shechitah, which precedes it.

3)

Since the Torah writes "B'nei Aharon", why does it see fit to add the word "ha'Kohanim" at all?

1.

Rashi: To disqualify a Chalal (the son of a Kohen who married a P'sul Kehunah) 1 from performing the Avodah.


1

See Vayikra 21:7, 14.

4)

Why does the Torah repeat the word "ha'Dam"?

1.

Rashi: To incorporate two kinds of blood of the same Korban 1 that became mixed up, or even if it became mixed up with that of a different Korban. 2

2.

Moshav Zekenim: Dam, which is Adom (red), should atone for one who is red through Aveiros, and make him pleasing to Hashem, who is "Tzach v'Adom" (Shir ha'Shirim 5:10), and He will exact payment from Edom (Esav) in a red garment - "Madu'a Adom li'Lvushecha" (Yeshayah 63:2).


1

Such as the blood of Reuven's Olah that became mixed up with that of Shimon (Sifsei Chachamim).

2

Such as the blood of an Olah with that of a Temurah or of an Asham (Sifsei Chachamim).

5)

What do we learn from "Es Damo" (in Pasuk 11)?

1.

Rashi: We learn from the 'Vav' at the end of the word that if it became mixed up with the blood of a Pasul Korban or with the blood of Chata'os ha'Penimiyos 1 or of Chata'os Chitzoniyos it cannot be thrown, for Dam Chatas Chitzonis goes above (on the top half of the Mizbe'ach), and Dam Olah is thrown below. 2

2.

Ba'al ha'Turim (from Bereishis Rabah 84:19), Moshav Zekenim (3:1): Human blood resembles that of Tzon (refer to Bereishis 37:31:1:1), so it says Damo, as if he offered his own blood. This does not apply to blood of cattle, so it says "ha'Dam".


1

Whose blood is sprinkled on the Mizbe'ach ha'Ketores.

2

Refer to 1:5:156:1,2.

6)

What are the implications of "v'Zarku" mentioned with regard to the majority of Korbanos (as opposed to "v'Hizah" mentioned in connection with the Chatas (See for example, 4:6)?

1.

Rashi: The Kohen stands on the floor and throws directly from the bowl on to the Mizbe'ach below the Chut ha'Sikra. 1


1

Whereas ve'Hizah (which is confined to the Chatas) entails the Kohen dipping his finger into the bowl of blood and sprinkling it.

7)

What are the implications of the word "Saviv"?

1.

Rashi: He throws on the two diametrically-opposite corners of the Mizbe'ach 1 - so some blood lands on each of the four sides. 2


1

On the north-east and on the south-western corners - which both had a Y'sod (the south eastern corner did not).

2

Saviv cannot be taken literally, since it says "v'Zarku", and one cannot surround while throwing (Rashi).

8)

Why does the Torah add "asher Pesach Ohel Mo'ed"?

1.

Rashi: The Z'rikas ha'Dam could only be performed when the Ohel Mo'ed was standing; but not when it was dismantled.

2.

Rashbam: It comes to preclude the golden Mizbe'ach which stood inside the Ohel Mo'ed.

9)

Why does the Torah repeat "Lifnei Hashem" regarding a bull?

1.

Refer to 1:3:154:1.

10)

Why does it say "Ben ha'Bakar"?

1.

Moshav Zekenim: Ben ha'Bakar excludes an old bull. Da'as Zekenim - also sick is excluded, due to "Hakrivehu Na l'Fechasecha."

2.

Moshav Zekenim (3:7): Ben Bakar is smaller than an Egel; it still needs its mother. 1 Par Ben Bakar is above one year.

3.

R. Bechayei (citing R. Meir, Rosh Hashanah 10a): Ben Bakar is in its second year. 2 Par Ben Bakar is in its third year. Egel Stam is a yearling.


1

One may bring even an adult bull for an Olah or Shelamim! Why does it say Ben ha'Bakar? (PF)

2

Ba'al ha'Turim: Ben Bakar is Ben Shanah (i.e. during the first year, like "Keves Ben Shanah" - PF); the Gematriya is 354 (the number of days in a lunar year). Refer also to 1:5:152:2*.

11)

Why does it say "Bnei Aharon"?

1.

Moshav Zekenim #1, Da'as Zekenim: This disqualifies an old 1 Kohen for Avodah.

2.

Moshav Zekenim #2: Due to Chet ha'Egel, Aharon is not mentioned in this Parshah of Korbanos. He prayed and asked for mercy, and Hashem answered him; the next Parshah begins "Tzav Es Aharon."

3.

Riva: Aharon was mentioned nine times regarding Chet ha'Egel (Shemos Perek 32). Corresponding to this, he is not mentioned in the first nine Avodos of Mitzvah; rather, it says "Bnei Aharon." 2


1

Da'as Zekenim; He is called old if his hands shake (Chulin 24b).

2

It says "Bnei Aharon" nine times regarding Avodah, before Aharon himself is mentioned (6:2). It does say before this that Aharon receives Shirei Menachos (2:3,10), but this is not Avodah of Mitzvah. (PF)

12)

Rashi writes that "ha'Kohanim" is written after "v'Hikrivu", to teach that from Kabalah and onwards requires a Kohen. Brachos 31b teaches that a Zar may do Shechitah, and does not bring from here! (Moshav Zekenim)

13)

Why is "v'Shachat" singular, and "v'Hikrivu

1.

Da'as Zekenim: Normally one person does Shechitah (but many engage in the other Avodos).

14)

Rashi writes that if Dam Olah became mixed with Dam Chatas Chitzonis, it cannot be thrown, for the latter goes above, and Dam Olah goes below. Both opinions in Zevachim 8:10 permit offering it!

1.

Riva: Rashi explains like Chachamim (Zevachim 8:9), who say that the entire mixture is spilled to the Amah. Mishnah 8:10 does not discuss Chatas, rather, Korbanos that require two Zerikos [on opposite corners] that are like four.

2.

Moshav Zekenim: Even if Dam Olah became mixed with blood of a Bechor, Ma'aser or Pesach, which requires only one Zerikah, or with Chatas Chitzonis, it is thrown, since for all of them, one is Yotzei through one Zerikah. (This is unlike Rashi.)

15)

רש"י: והלא הוא ובניו היו בכלל שבעים... וכי לא היינו יודעים וכו': מה היה קשה לרש"י?

1.

גור אריה: היה קשה לרש"י שאם בא לומר שיוסף השלים את מנין ה-70, למה הזכירו רק את יוסף ולא את בניו? ואם תתרץ שזה דבר בפני עצמו ובא ללמדנו שיוסף היה במצרים, קשה שכבר ידענו זאת? [אלא להודיע צידקו].

16)

למה לא נמנו ה-70 נפש כמו שנמנו השבטים?

1.

מהר"ל (גבורות ה' תחילת פי"ג): השבטים נמנו בפרט מפני חשיבותם, ואילו שאר ה-70 נפש נמנו רק בכללם.

17)

למה ירדו למצרים דוקא כשהיו ל-70 נפש?

1.

מהר"ל (גבורות ה' פ"ט עמ' נד ד"ה ועוד): 70 נפש של יעקב הם כנגד 70 אומות ולכן רק במספר הזה יש שיתוף והתנגדות בין ישראל לאומות. 1

2.

מהר"ל (גבורות ה', הלכות יין נסך עמ' שלג): אילו נולדה יוכבד קודם בואם למצרים- נמצא שהיה התחלה לישראל מבלי להיות גרים במצרים, ואילו נולדה יוכבד אחר בואם למצרים, נמצא שגלו קודם זמנם. 2


1

עיין עוד במהר"ל (גבורות ה' סוף פי"א) שהרחיב בעניין זה. ועיין שם (הלכות יין נסך עמ' שלג) ש-70 בגמטריא סוד, ולכן התחלת ישראל במספר 70 כמו האומות, כי הם דומים בחיצניותם אבל נבדלים בהתחלתם ובפנימיות שלהם.

2

עיין עוד במהר"ל (חידושי אגדות ח"ג עמ' קכו, ב"ב דף קכג א) שהוסיף בעניין זה.

18)

למה דוקא יוסף הוא שירד למצרים לפני אחיו?

1.

מהר"ל (גבורות ה' פי"א עמ' סב): המצרים חומריים ויוסף היה קדוש ופרוש מגילוי עריות, ולכן הוא היה ראוי למלוך על המצרים.

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