hebrew
1)

Why does the Torah refer to Yocheved as Shifrah, and six-year old Miriam as Pu'ah?

1.

Rashi: Because Yocheved would make the baby look nice (Meshaperes), 1 whilst Miriam would coo (Po'ah) 2 to it.

2.

Hadar Zekenim: Shifrah hints that Bnei Yisrael Paru u'Rvu (multiplied) in their days. Miriam is called Pu'ah, for Tzafsah (she saw) with Ru'ach ha'Kodesh that her mother will give birth to a son who will save Yisrael.


1

See also Ba'al ha'Turim.

2

Da'as Zekenim: Pu'ah teaches that she calls to the fetus, and it leaves.

2)

How could two midwives suffice for all of Yisrael?

1.

Seforno: Shifrah and Pu'ah were the midwives of the Jews who lived in the town Egypt, but of course, there were many more midwives who served the Jews who lived in other towns. 1

2.

Da'as Zekenim (verse 20): They truthfully told Pharaoh that Benos Yisrael are like Chayos, and they do not need midwives. Refer to 1:20:1:2.

3.

Moshav Zekenim (verse 17): Shifrah and Pu'ah were the head midwives. There were other midwives under them.


1

However, once the midwives of Egypt disobeyed his instructions, he did not even begin to trust the others (Seforno). Also refer to 1:20:1:2**.

3)

What caused Pharaoh to instigate this extreme decree?

1.

Targum Yonasan: Following a dream that he had, 1 his astrologers (Yeinis and Yimb'reis, disciples of Bil'am) informed him that a son was about to be born to the Jews who would destroy the whole of Egypt.


1

In which the whole of Egypt was placed in one scale, and a little lamb in the other, and the latter weighed down the former (Targum Yonasan).

4)

What is the meaning of "v'Nimtzah Damo

1.

Rashi: He presses the Oref against the wall of the Mizbe'ach until the blood drips down the wall.

5)

Why does the Torah invert the order of the phrases "v'Hiktir ha'Mizbeichah" and "v'Nimtzah Damo"?

1.

Rashi #1: To teach that, just as the head is burned separate from the body, 1 so too, the Melikah must sever the head from the body. 2

2.

Rashi #2: The Kohen performs Melikah and burns the bird on the Mizbe'ach, at which point the blood has already been squeezed on the wall of the Mizbe'ach.

3.

Ramban (citing Zevachim, 65a and Aba Yossi ben Chanan in the Midrash) 3 : The Kohen performs Melikah on the bird having in mind to burn the head just as he burns the body. 4


1

Refer to 1:15:5:3*.

2

In other words, the head must be severed from the body already via the Melikah.

3

See Ramban, who interprets the Midrash differently.

4

Seeing as they are burned separately - He first burned the head after removing the crop; then he split the body (See Pasuk 17) and burned it (Ramban).

6)

Why is Meyaldos written missing a Vov?

1.

Da'as Zekenim, Hadar Zekenim: This teaches that there was only one. Pu'ah would merely coo at the baby after he was born.

7)

Rashi writes that v'Hikrivo teaches that one may even bring one bird for an Olah. Why would I think not?

1.

Moshav Zekenim: If one found a nest with two doves, and said that he will bring them for a Korban, and one of them went away 1 , the verse teaches that he brings the second for a Korban.

2.

Sifsei Chachamim: The previous Pasuk implies that one must bring at least two.


1

One might have thought that he cannot fulfill his words, so he is exempt. (PF)

8)

Why did the Torah command to do Melikah with the fingernail, and not with a knife?

1.

Moshav Zekenim citing Ri: Normally, this is Neveilah; this is so it will be known that one does so 1 only with Kodshim.

2.

Moshav Zekenim, citing R. Eliezer of Garmaiza: Melikah should atone for sin written with a fingernail - "Chatas Yehudah Kesuvah b'Et Barzel b'Tziporen 2 Shamir" (Yirmeyah 17:1).

3.

Moshav Zekenim: If he would do Shechitah, some blood would fall on the ground, and it could not be squeezed against the Mizbe'ach. If he would collect the blood in a Kli, some would be absorbed.


1

He did not specify what one might have thought to do similarly with Chulin. Perhaps he refers to Shechitah from the back of the neck. (PF)

2

Even though the verse mentions also iron, if Melikah were with an iron knife, this is normal, and we would not know that it is due to this verse. (PF)

9)

Rashi writes (from Zevachim 65a) that it cannot be that he burns the head on the Mizbe'ach before squeezing the blood on the wall. Why not?

1.

Rashi (Zevachim 65a): All the blood must be squeezed, including what is in the head.

2.

Moshav Zekenim: There is never Haktarah before Kaparah through the blood.

10)

רש"י: לשון מולידות: מה כוונת רש"י?

1.

גור אריה: 'מולידות' הוא פועל יוצא- המיילדת את האשה.

11)

רש"י: שיש לשון קל ויש לשון כבד: במה זה תלוי?

1.

גור אריה: תלוי האם יש דגש בלמ"ד שהוא האות האמצעי מהשורש.

12)

רש"י: זו יוכבד...זו מרים: מנין לפרש כך?

1.

גור אריה: שכרן היה "ויעש להם בתים"- כהונה לויה ומלכות, ולא מצאנו זאת לשפרה ופועה, אלא הן יוכבד ומרים.

2.

גור אריה: כתוב "שם האחת...ושם השנית", ועל כרחך שהן אמה ובתה כי הבת היא שנית לאם, ולא מצאנו אם ובת בכתוב אלא יוכבד ומרים.

13)

מי הן שפרה ופועה, ומנין לנו?

1.

גור אריה: כתוב "שם האחת...ושם השנית" [משמע שהן קשורות זו לזו] ונחלקו האם זו אשה ובתה ואז הכוונה ליוכבד ומרים, או כלה וחמותה והכוונה ליוכבד ואלישבע.

14)

רש"י: זו יוכבד...זו מרים: למה לא נכתב שמן בפירוש?

1.

גור אריה: הכתוב לא מזכיר במפורש את עמרם, יוכבד, מרים ואהרון, עד אחר לידת משה כי משה מתוקן לגאולה מששת ימי בראשית ולכן הוא לא מיוחס אל משפחתו קודם לידתו, מפני שהם לא סיבה מיוחדת ללידתו. 1


1

עיין עוד במהר"ל (גבורות ה' פט"ו עמ' עג ד"ה אשר) שהוסיף בעניין זה.

15)

למה גזירת הבנים באה אחרי גזירת העבודה?

1.

מהר"ל (גבורות ה' פט"ו עמ' עג ד"ה וימררו): אחרי גזירת העבודה שיעבדום בבניהם וזה יותר פנימי, כמו שגרעין הפרי נמצא בתוך הפרי.

16)

למה גזירת הבנים באה בשלושה שלבים?

1.

מהר"ל (גבורות ה' פט"ו עמ' עג ד"ה וימררו): תחילה ציוה להמית בניהם, אח"כ להשליכם ליאור ואח"כ גזר אפילו על עמו 1 , כי גזירה גדולה כזו צריכה להיות משולשת כדי לחזקה.


1

אמנם לא הייתה כאן גזירה על ישראל, אבל עיין במהר"ל בגבורות ה' סוף פט"ו שגזירה זו מורה על שינאת מצרים לישראל, ולכן זו התחזקות שלישית של הגזירה.

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